[Advances in Chemistry] Aquatic Humic Substances Volume 219 (Influence on Fate and Treatment of Pollutants) || Removal of Aquatic Humus by Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption

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  • 39 Removal of Aquatic Humus by Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption

    Ellen Kaastrup1 and Terje M . Halmo2

    Department of Civil Engineering, Norwegian Institute of Technology, N-7034 Trondheim-NTH, Norway

    The separate and combined effects of treatment with ozone and ac-tivated carbon were studied for three different humus sources: Nor-wegian brook water, Norwegian bog water, and commercial humic acid. The effect of ozonation on solution properties was determined by ultrafiltration, color, UV, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis. Adsorption prior to and after ozonation was studied in laboratory isotherm studies and a pilot-scale column experiment. Ozonation caused significant reductions in the content of high-mo-lecular-weight material, UV extinction, and color; DOC reductions were insignificant for 1 mg of ozone per mg of DOC. Both isotherm and pilot-scale studies showed significant increases in adsorption ca-pacities resulting from preozonation.

    SURFACE WATERS HIGH IN COLOR-IMPARTING HUMIC SUBSTANCES are commonly used for drinking water in Norway. Such water used to be considered harmless, and the brownish color was treated as an aesthetic nuisance. The discovery of possible health threats caused by formation of trihalomethanes (THM) and heavy metal complexes (1) has led to more restrictive treatment requirements and extensive research on treatment alternatives.

    1Current address: Ebasco Services, Inc., 143 Union Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80228

    2Current address: Elf-Aquitaine Norway A/S, P.O. Box 168, Dusavik, N-4001 Stavanger, Norway

    0065-2393/89/0219-0697$08.50/0 1989 American Chemical Society

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    In Aquatic Humic Substances; Suffet, I., et al.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988.

  • 698 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    It is difficult to find suitable treatment methods because of the wide variety of compounds in such water. The treatment combination investigated in this study was ozonation and activated-carbon adsorption. Neither of these methods has been successful in efficient removal of humic materials when used alone. The study objectives were to

    study the adsorption of organic matter from different humic-water sources onto activated carbon,

    determine how ozonation affects solution properties such as molecular-size distribution, color, U V extinction, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC),

    determine if the adsorbability of organic matter is increased (or changed) as a result of preozonation, and

    relate the changes in adsorptive properties to the changes in solution properties.

    Background Humic Substances in Water. Humic substances in water are gen

    erally divided into humic acids and fulvic acids. The humic acid fraction, containing the larger base-soluble molecules, precipitates on acidification to p H

  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 699

    different from natural humus. The commercial materials had a lower content of aromatic molecules, longer chains of carbon-carbon double bonds, and lower carboxyl-group content.

    Activated-Carbon Adsorption of Humic Substances. Most organic compounds are removed from water by activated-carbon adsorption. The adsorbability of individual compounds depends on a number of factors, such as polarity and hydrophilicity, solubility, molecular size and structure, and p H .

    Generally, relatively insoluble and nonpolar compounds are most easily adsorbed. Size and structure may be limiting factors for molecules that are too large to have access to the smaller carbon pores that make up the major part of the surface area. The carbon surface can be divided by size into different groups of pores. According to the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) definition, pores with diameter

  • 700 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    of it) is most often used. Previous investigators have proposed that the collective organic matter in humic water can be considered as consisting of fractions of varying adsorbability, often including a nonadsorbable fraction (8-10). The Freundlich model can be modified to account for a nonadsorbable fraction of organic matter, and different parameters can be used for segments of different adsorbability. By use of a substitution term for nonadsorbable matter, the equation takes the form

    qe = KF(Ce - Cn)l/n (1)

    where qe is the amount adsorbed per unit weight of carbon at equilibrium (or most often "pseudoequilibrium"), Ce is the equilibrium concentration of organic substances, Cn is the concentration of nonadsorbable matter, KF is the Freundlich coefficient, and 1/n is the Freundlich exponent.

    Ozonation. Ozone is one of the strongest chemical oxidants known. It is used in water and wastewater treatment for disinfection, for decolori-zation, and as pretreatment for filtration and adsorption processes. The ozonation products are generally smaller, more polar, and hydrophilic than their precursors. Therefore, they are considered less adsorbable and more easily biodegradable.

    The decolorization of humic water occurs because ozone is a typical double-bond reagent. It reacts with double bonds in the conjugated chains of large, color-imparting molecules, and thereby reduces the color and size of the molecules. Efficient and satisfactory decolorization of humic water has been reported in several studies (11-14).

    Ozonation breaks up molecules into smaller units, but does not remove organic matter to any significant extent. Complete oxidation to carbon dioxide and water is too slow to be of significance in water treatment, and only minor reductions in the content of organic matter are therefore observed. Ozone treatment is consequently not sufficient as a removal method for organic matter.

    Ozonation and GAC Adsorption. Ozonation is commonly used as a pretreatment for granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. Because the formation of more polar molecules generally causes reduced adsorbability, the intention of such pretreatment is usually to enhance biological activity in the filter and thereby to increase the overall removal efficiency.

    Several studies have reported increased organic-substance removal in adsorption filters as a result of preozonation. However, in most cases ozonation had an adverse effect on adsorption, and the improved removal resulted from increased biological growth that led to increased biodegradability. Such results have been reported in several studies (15-18). However, the character of the organic matter is important. Most of the reported studies have

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    In Aquatic Humic Substances; Suffet, I., et al.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988.

  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 701

    dealt with organic matter that was relatively easily adsorbable prior to ozonation and in which intermediate-to-small molecules, rather than extremely large molecules, dominated. The situation is different for large humic molecules, for which adsorption is restricted by carbon pore size. Such molecules are adsorbed to a very low extent; they use large pores, which are only a small fraction of the carbon surface. These large molecules are easily oxidized by ozone. The reaction between ozone and the larger molecules wil l dominate as long as these are present because of ozone's high double-bond reactivity. On the basis of these observations, the following hypotheses were proposed for this study:

    Ozone will react with large color-imparting molecules and thereby reduce the color and molecular size.

    The adsorption capacity of organic matter from humic solutions will be increased as a result of reduced molecular size, as long as the reduced size dominates the increase in polarity.

    The adsorption rate will increase as a result of reduced diffu-sional restrictions.

    Increased biological activity is expected, in addition to increased adsorbability, in long-term studies.

    Approach

    Because two treatment processes were involved in this study, it was important to study them both separately and in combination. To study the influence of ozonation on solution properties, a thorough characterization was required. It was therefore decided to use three different concentration parameters: color, U V extinction, and D O C . Another goal was to determine the molecular-weight distributions for the different doses of ozone applied.

    The color reduction resulting from ozonation demonstrates the bleaching efficiency of ozone for different ozone doses and different humic substances. U V extinction is commonly used as a measure for the content of natural organic matter in water. Most small, easily biodegradable molecules are not detected by this parameter. The D O C value represents a collective measure of all the organic substances in solution.

    Because of the confusion and disagreements among studies that deal with humic substances and adsorption of organic matter in general, it was decided to use humic substances of different origins. These substances included a commercial product that has frequently been used in adsorption studies but is considered very different from aquatic humus (4), in addition to two different natural humus sources.

    Two characteristic properties of the solution to be treated, adsorption rate and adsorption capacity, are important for the design of adsorber sys-

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    In Aquatic Humic Substances; Suffet, I., et al.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988.

  • 702 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    terns. The emphasis of this work was to study the adsorption capacities of the different humic substances and changes in them caused by preozonation. Most of the reported studies of ozonation-adsorption systems have been carried out in full-scale plants. Because biological degradation is likely to interfere when long contact times are used, the effect of preozonation on adsorptive properties was studied in laboratory experiments, with precautions against biodgradation.

    Adsorption capacities before and after ozonation were determined from isotherm experiments. The Freundlich model is known for its wide applicability to natural water and mixtures of differing adsorbability. This model was therefore selected to describe the adsorption isotherms and changes in adsorbability. The adsorption was modeled by "pseudo-single-solute" isotherms, with D O C and U V extinction, respectively, as concentration parameters.

    Absolute equilibrium for large humic molecules is not reached within the reaction times chosen in this study. Summers (19) found that, for commercial humic acid, equilibrium was not reached even after 50 days of reaction time. He did, however, choose 5 days of reaction time in his study because a pseudoequilibrium state was reached within this period. This reaction time also agreed with the theoretical equilibration time calculated by the method of Suzuki and Kawazoe (20).

    Finally, it was important to see how well the laboratory results agree with larger-scale results. A pilot study for comparison of organic-substance removal from nonozonated and ozonated water was therefore designed. The experimental conditions were chosen to allow for biological growth, and thus to determine the importance of biological removal compared to adsorptive removal.

    Experimental Procedures

    Humus Sources. Different humus sources were used in the experiments in order to be able to make general conclusions. Three kinds of humic materials were studied: a commercial humic acid and two different Norwegian waters from Helle-rudmyra and Heimdalsmyra.

    The commercial humic acid was prerinsed according to the procedure described by Altmann (21). Stock solutions of humic acid were made by dissolving 1 g of the solid in 1 L of distilled deionized water (Milli-Q) at pH 11, obtained by adding 1.0 NaOH. This solution was placed in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min to achieve complete dissolution and then stored at 4 C. Dilutions of the stock solution were made up prior to each experiment. The pH was adjusted by addition of 1.0 HC1 and a phosphate buffer.

    Brook water was collected from Hellerudmyra, a marsh area outside Oslo, Norway. The water was immediately filtered through glass fiber filters (Whatman GF/C) and stored at 4 C until use. Prior to each adsorption experiment, the water was filtered through 0.45- microfilters (Millipore).

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    In Aquatic Humic Substances; Suffet, I., et al.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988.

  • 39. KAASTRUP & HALMO Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 703

    Heimdalsmyra water was collected from a bog outside Trondheim, Norway. This water has a color of approximately 700 mg of Pt per liter, and was diluted with tap water for experimental use. The filtration procedure was the same as for Hellerud-myra water.

    Carbon. The carbon selected for this study (Calgon F-400) was ground and sieved to the actual particle sizes, washed in distilled deionized water (Milli-Q), and dried at 110 C for 48 h. It was stored in an airtight bottle placed in a desiccator until use.

    Ozonation. Ozonation was carried out with an ozone generator (BBC LN 103). The apparatus was calibrated, and unreacted ozone was quantified by the potassium iodide absorption method, as described by Standard Methods for the Examination of Waters and Wastewater (22).

    The contact column used for batch ozonation was a 7-L glass column. Ozone was applied through a glass sinter of porosity 0 in the bottom of the column. The ozone dose was adjusted by keeping the gas flow constant and varying the contact time.

    Continuous ozonation for the pilot-scale study was carried out in a 1.5-L glass column with countercurrent flow of ozone through a sinter in the bottom. The applied dose was 1 mg of ozone per milligram of DOC.

    Analytical Methods. Various total organic carbon (TOC) analyzers were used for DOC analysis (Dohrmann DC-80, Astro Model 1850, Sybron-Barnstead Pho-tochem Analyzer). The instruments were calibrated with a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) standard and tested with humus standards. Excellent agreement between the different instruments was obtained.

    UV-visible absorption spectra were determined by transmission measurements on spectrophotometers (Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 600, Perkin Elmer Model 554, Hitachi 110-20). The instruments were tested with humus standards, and again excellent agreement was obtained.

    Spectral absorption coefficients, reflecting the UV/DOC ratios, were determined according to Zepp and Schlotzhauer (23):

    k = 2.303 AIC (2)

    where k is the spectral absorption coefficient (mg1 m"1), A is absorption at some wavelength (m_1), and C is the concentration of organic matter (mg of DOC/L).

    Color was determined from transmission measurements at 450 nm (Bausch and Lomb Spectronic 88). The apparatus was calibrated with a cobalt-platinum standard according to the definition of color measured as milligrams of Pt per liter. Procedure and definitions are given in ref. 22.

    Preservation of Samples. Most samples were analyzed immediately after the experiments were completed, and such samples did not need any preservation. Samples that had to be stored for DOC analysis were preserved by the addition of 2 mg of HgCl2 per liter.

    Ultrafiltration. The molecular-size distributions of DOC in the various solu-tions were determined by ultrafiltration. A 400-mL ultrafiltration cell (Amicon) was used and operated at a pressure of 4.1 atm. The membranes used (XM 50, YM 10,

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  • 704 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    and Y M 2) had molecular-weight cutoff values of 50,000, 10,000, and 1,000, respectively.

    Ultrafiltration was used to determine changes occurring in the individual solutions as a result of preozonation, but not for comparisons of different humus solutions, because the method is strongly dependent on solution properties. The calculation procedure used for determining the molecular-weight distribution was given by Reinhard (24).

    Adsorption Isotherms. The isotherm experiments were carried out by the bottle point method, with constant initial organic-substance concentration and varying carbon dose. The carbon-particle size used was 200-400 mesh (28 ). Different carbon doses were weighed by the difference in 160-mL hypovials (Wheaton Scientific), and 150 or 100 mL (SD = 0.5 mL) of humic acid solution was added to each vial. The vials were sealed with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) face rubber and aluminum crimp caps, and the samples were placed on a 270-rpm shaker table or in a shaker bath (Julabo SWl). The reaction time was 5 days, as determined by reaction-time studies, and the different experimental conditions gave identical results. The isotherms were plotted as amount adsorbed per unit weight of carbon (Qe) versus the corresponding equilibrium concentration (Ce).

    For the experiments carried out in connection with the ozonation study, 1-10 mg of sodium azide per liter was added as an inhibitor for biological growth. These concentrations of inhibitor did not affect adsorption in studies with nonozonated samples.

    Microcolumn Adsorption. Short-time microcolumn studies were performed with columns of 1-cm diameter that contained 1.00 and 2.50 g of carbon. The columns were operated in the upflow mode with gravity flow, at flow rates of 10 and 7 mL/min, respectively. Carbon dose and flow rate were varied to account for differences in solution character. The carbon particle size in these experiments was 48-65 Tyler mesh (i.e., 0.210-0.297 mm). This size was selected to avoid wall effects and optimize the homogeneity of the particles.

    Pilot-Scale Column Experiments. Parallel column experiments were carried out with preozonated and nonozonated water from Heimdalsmyra. The water concentration prior to ozonation was approximately 5 mg of DOC per liter, corresponding to a UV extinction of 20 m 1 and a color of 52 mg of Pt per liter. Figure 1 shows a schematic illustration of the pilot plant.

    The water was mixed in a 2.3-m3 tank, and then pumped to a rapid sand filter for removal of particulate matter. The effluent from the filter was separated into two flow streams; one was pumped directly to one of the GAC filters, and a second was pumped to the ozone contact column. The ozonated water passed through an equalization column (retention time 82 min) and a rapid sand filter before it was pumped to the other GAC filter. A minor fraction was pumped through a slow sand filter to determine the importance of biological growth in the GAC filter. The rapid sand filters were backwashed after 2-day intervals.

    Both carbon columns were operated in the downflow mode, with sampling points at 30-, 60-, and 150-cm (effluent) bed depth. The carbon (Chemviron F-400, 12-48 mesh) was used as received, and each column contained 1 kg of carbon. Prior to the experiment the carbon was washed with tap water to get rid of carbon fines. The experimental conditions for the sand filters and the ozonation columns are given in Table I, while those for the carbon columns are listed in Table II.

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption

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    In Aquatic Humic Substances; Suffet, I., et al.; Advances in Chemistry; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988.

  • 7 0 6 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Table L Experimental Conditions in Ozonation System and Sand Filters Ozonation Retention Slow Rapid

    Parameter0 Reactor Column Sand Filter Sand Filter A (cm2) 2 0 . 3 8 1 . 1 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 L (cm) 7 2 . 0 8 6 . 3 1 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 V(L) 1 . 4 6 7 . 0 2 . 2 0 0 . 7 6 Q (L/h) 5 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 0 0 5 5 . 1 vL (m/h) 0 . 0 0 3 3 5 . 0 EBCT (min) 1 7 . 2 8 2 . 4 2 7 3 . 6 8 . 9 "Abbreviations are A, cross-sectional area; L, length of column; V, volume; Q, flow rate; vL> linear velocity; and EBCT, empty-bed contact time.

    Table U . Experimental Conditions for Carbon Columns at Bed Depth L, (i = 1, 2, or 3)

    Parameter L i = 30 cm L2 = 60 cm L3 = 150 cm A (cm2) 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 1 5 . 2 Q (L / h ) 4 . 5 6 4 . 5 6 4 . 5 6 vL (m/h) 3 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 V,(L) 0 . 4 6 0 . 9 1 2 . 2 8 EBCT, (min) 6 . 0 1 2 . 0 3 0 . 0 "Abbreviations are A, cross-sectional area; Q, flow rate; vL, linear velocity; V,, bed volume; and EBCT,, empty-bed contact time at bed depth.

    Results

    The influence of ozonation on the humus solutions was evaluated through molecular-size determinations by ultrafiltration, color, UV, and D O C analysis. The results of applying a dose of 1.0 mg of ozone per mg of D O C to the three humus solutions are represented in Table III by initial D O C values and spectral absorption coefficients, initial and final values, and percent reduction for U V extinction and color. The spectral absorption coefficient, representing the U V / D O C ratio, is significantly higher for commercial humic acid than for the other two solutions. The U V reduction measured per unit weight of ozone added was also slightly higher, 2.3 m" 1 per milligram of ozone for commercial humic acid and 2.0 m" 1 per milligram of ozone for the other two solutions. A color reduction of 72% was observed for Hellerudmyra water; the reduction for Heimdalsmyra water was close to 63%. These values correspond to color removals of 4.3 and 7.9 mg of Pt per milligram of ozone, respectively.

    Table IV shows molecular-size distributions for commercial humic acid, Heimdalsmyra water, and Hellerudmyra water prior to and after ozonation. The highest-molecular-weight fraction of commerical humic acid was reduced from 91.3 to 58.4% when an ozone dose of 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C was applied. The ozonated water still had a dark brown color. Signif-

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 707

    Table III. Ozonation Results

    Humus Source

    Initial Spectral Absorption

    Coefficients, k (mg-1 m-1)

    Initial DOC (mg/L)

    Initial-Final (' UV Extinction

    Jo Reduction) Color

    (mg of Pt/L) Commercial humic acid 20.0 5.4 44.4-31.4 (29.3)

    19.1 14.2 125.4-91.0 (27.4) Hellerudmyra humus water 10.0 13.8 63.7-35.1 (44.9) 84.0-23.5 (72.0) Heimdalsmyra humus water 9.6 5.1 21.2-12.4 (41.3) 56.5-21.0 (62.8)

    11.3 14.9 75.5-42.2 (44.1) NOTE: Results are for an ozone dose of 1 mg of DOC per milligram.

    icant reductions in the highest-molecular-weight fraction, with corresponding increases in the lower-molecular-weight fractions, result from ozonation of Hellerudmyra water. Application of an ozone dose of 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C resulted in a reduction of the highest-molecular-weight fraction from approximately 60 to 5%, corresponding to almost complete decolorization. The two lowest-molecular-weight fractions were significantly increased as a result of ozonation. A significant reduction of the highest-molecular-weight fraction is also observed for Heimdalsmyra water as a result of ozonation with 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C . Corresponding increases are again observed in the two lowest-molecular-weight fractions. Ozonated water has a brownish color.

    Figure 2 shows D O C adsorption isotherms for Hellerudmyra water with initial concentrations of approximately 13 mg of D O C per liter and ozonated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C . The isotherm is presented as amount of D O C adsorbed per unit weight of carbon versus the corresponding D O C concentration. The plotted isotherms were determined by the Freundlich equation. The isotherm for nonozonated water is almost linear. Ozonation with 0.5 and 1.0 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C resulted in increased adsorption capacities and favorable adsorption. Further increase of the ozone dose resulted in lower adsorption capacities and unfavorable adsorption behavior. Almost all high-molecular-weight material was destroyed at an ozone dose of 1.0, and an ozone dose of 2.0 resulted in a 30% D O C loss that indicated significant loss of C 0 2 .

    Figure 3 shows U V isotherms corresponding to the D O C isotherms in Figure 2 for ozone doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C . The initial U V extinctions are represented by A 0 . Significant increases in the adsorption of UV-active compounds with increasing ozone doses are observed. A l l isotherms exhibit favorable adsorption behavior.

    Figure shows the adsorption isotherms for Heimdalsmyra water corresponding to ozone doses of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 mg per milligram of D O C . In this case, all isotherms show favorable adsorption behavior. Ozonation again resulted in significantly increased adsorption, but the isotherms for ozone doses of 1.0 and 2.0 are only insignificantly different. U V isotherms for

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  • Tabl

    e IV

    . Mol

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    ize

    Dis

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    Init

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    0-10

    ,000

    G

    G CO

    G ce

    m

    C/5

    Fig

    ure

    3.

    UV

    iso

    ther

    ms

    for

    Hel

    leru

    dmyr

    a w

    ate

    r. K

    ey:

    , s

    o/id

    lin

    e, n

    onoz

    onat

    ed (

    A0

    = 59

    .6 m

    '1);

    T,

    dash

    ed

    lin

    e, 0

    .5 m

    g of

    03 p

    er m

    illi

    gram

    of D

    OC

    (A0

    = 39

    .9 m

    ~!);

    V,

    do

    tted

    lin

    e, 1

    .0 m

    g of

    03 p

    er m

    illi

    gram

    of D

    OC

    (A

    o =

    29.3

    m-1

    ).

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 711

    C e (mg DOC/I)

    Figure 4. DOC isotherms for Heimdalsmyra water with high initial DOC. Initial concentrations and Freundlich parameters are given in Table V. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated; V , dashed line, 1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of

    DOC; , dotted line, 2.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC.

    dose of 1.0 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C applied to Hellerudmyra water, resulting in a significantly higher KF value and a lower 1/n value.

    Figure 8 shows D O C isotherms for a lower initial concentration of commercial humic acid, approximately 5 mg/L, ozonated with 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C . The trend of increased adsorbability is the same as for the higher initial concentration.

    Results from microcolumn studies for commercial humic acid, 2.5 g of carbon, and ozone doses of 0 and 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C are shown in Figures 9 and 10, represented by D O C and U V extinction breakthrough profiles, respectively. The initial concentrations for the microcolumn experiments, indicated in the figures, were constant throughout the experiment. The breakthrough curves for nonozonated water show immediate breakthrough of D O C as well as UV-absorbing compounds. This breakthrough indicates low adsorption capacity and slow adsorption kinetics. A significant increase in removal efficiency was obtained as a result of preozonation.

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  • 712 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Figure 5. UV isotherms corresponding to the data in Figure 4. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated (A 0 = 77.5 m - 1); V , dashed line, l.Omgof 03 per milligram

    of DOC (A 0 = 41.4 m-1).

    Breakthrough curves for Hellerudmyra water for columns with 1 g of carbon are plotted in Figures 11-13 for D O C , U V extinction, and color. The curves for ozonated and nonozonated water exhibit steep concentration increases from the beginning of the experiments, whereafter both curves reach plateau concentrations. The removal efficiency was, however, significantly higher for ozonated than for nonozonated water.

    Results from the pilot-scale column study carried out with Heimdalsmyra water are presented in Figures 14-22. Figures 14-16 show influent concentration profiles and breakthrough curves for the upper sampling point with respect to color, U V extinction, and D O C . Corresponding data for the middle and effluent sampling points are shown in Figures 17-19 and 20-22, respectively.

    The D O C influent curves in Figure 14 show that the influent value for ozonated water is only slightly lower than that for nonozonated water during the first 3 weeks of the experiment; the difference corresponds to that observed in the isotherm experiments. After this time the influent concentration for ozonated water drops significantly. This drop was assumed to be a

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 713

    5 10 15 C e (mg DOC/I)

    Figure 6. DOC isotherms for commercial humic acid. Corresponding initial concentrations and Freundlich parameters are given in Table V. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated; dashed line, 0.5 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC; O,

    dotted line, 1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC.

    result of biological growth that was observed in the tubing system at this time. The influent concentration decrease is not observed for the U V and color parameters. This distinction suggests that only compounds that are not detected by these analyses are degraded biologically.

    The effluent profile for nonozonated water shows a significant, immediate concentration increase in all three parameters. This increase demonstrates that the UV-absorbing, color-imparting compounds are responsible for the early D O C breakthrough. A significantly better D O C removal is observed for ozonated water with a much lower content of large color-imparting molecules. Ozonation reduced the U V extinction and color by approximately 40 and 60%, respectively.

    The curves in Figures 17-19 show that higher adsorption capacities are obtained for the 60-cm sampling point as a result of longer contact times, but again a more rapid and sharper breakthrough is observed for nonozonated water.

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  • 714 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    25 50 75 100

    UV ext. (m"1)

    125

    Figure 7. UV isotherms for commercial humic acid. Key: O, solid line, non-ozonated (A 0 = 117.9 m'1); , dashed line, 0.5 mg of DOC; O, dotted line,

    1.0 mg of03 per milligram of DOC (A 0 = 87.6/90.1 m~l).

    Table V. Freundlich Parameters Applied Initial Nonadsorbent

    Humus Ozone DOC DOC Source (mg/mg of DOC) (mg/L) (mg/L) J/n r 2

    Commercial 0 14.20 0 0.19 1.93 0.85 humic acid 0.5 13.69-13.09 0 0.48 1.71 0.84

    1.0 13.29-13.77 0 0.57 1.97 0.92 Hellerudmyra 0 13.80 0 5.43 1.02 0.94

    humus water 0.5 12.89-13.04 0 14.72 0.69 0.96 0.70 24.66 0.42 0.96

    1.0 12.37 0 15.70 0.88 0.85 0.75 81.33 0.43 0.90

    2.0 9.09-9.60 0 7.29 1.20 0.85 0.50 8.48 1.00 0.81

    Heimdalsmyra 0 15.81 0 9.35 0.61 0.95 humus water 1.0 14.01 0 18.65 0.52 0.96

    2.0 13.05 0 15.19 0.57 0.96

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 715

    0 1 2 3 4 C e ( m g DOC/I)

    Figure 8. DOC isotherms for commercial humic acid. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated; T , dashed line, 0.5 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC; V , dotted

    line, 1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC.

    The effluent curves in Figures 20-22 show less pronounced differences between the D O C curves for ozonated and nonozonated water because the carbon is farther from saturation. The U V and color curves do, however, demonstrate why adsorption alone does not give satisfactory treatment results. Even though the D O C values are low, a color breakthrough to unacceptable levels is observed in nonozonated water after a few days.

    No significant difference was observed between D O C removal in the slow sand filter and the rapid sand filter. Such a difference would indicate biological removal in the slow sand filter.

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  • 716 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    1.0 2.0 3.0 Throughput volume (I)

    4.0

    Figure 9. DOC breakthrough curves for nonozonated and ozonated solutions of commercial humic acid. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated effluent; solid line, nonozonated influent; , dotted line, ozonated effluent (1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC); dotted line, ozonated influent. Carbon: 2.50 g (48-65 Tyler

    mesh), column diameter: 1.0 cm, empty-bed contact time: 0.80 min.

    100 h

    80 h

    1.0 2.0 3.0 Throughput volume (I)

    4.0

    Figure 10. UV breakthrough curves for experiments in Figure 9. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated effluent; solid line, nonozonated influent; dotted line, ozonated effluent (1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC); dotted line, ozonated

    influent.

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 717

    \ m

    Q

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    _

    _

    - -- fl (m

    r

    V"""** *

    g

    I 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

    c/c c

    1.0

    0.8

    0.6

    0.4

    -I 0.2

    Throughput volume (I)

    Figure 11. DOC breakthrough curves for Hellerudmyra water. Key: , solid line, nonozonated effluent; , CIC0; solidline, nonozonated influent; V , dotted line, ozonated effluent (1.0 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC); , C/C0; dotted line, ozonated influent. Carbon: 1.00 g (48-65 Tyler mesh), column diameter:

    10 mLlmin, empty-bed contact time: 0.22 min.

    60

    50 h

    ? 4 0 b_

    " 30 h x

    > 20

    10

    r

    0.5 1.0 1.5 Throughput volume (I)

    2.0

    Figure 12. UV breakthrough curves corresponding to results in Figure 11. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated effluent; solid line, nonozonated influent; , dashed line, ozonated effluent (0.5 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC); dashed line, ozonated influent; V , dotted line, ozonated effluent (1.0 mg of 03 per

    milligram of DOC); dotted line, ozonated influent.

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  • 718 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Throughput volume 111

    Figure 13. Color breakthrough curves corresponding to results in Figures 11 and 12. Key: O, solid line, nonozonated effluent; solid line, nonozonated in-fluent; , dashed line, ozonated effluent (0.5 mg of 03 per milligram of DOC); dashed line, ozonated influent; V , dotted line, ozonated effluent (1.0 mg of 03

    per milligram of DOC); dotted line, ozonated influent.

    6.0

    0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

    T ime ( d a y s )

    Figure 14. DOC concentration profiles for influent and 30-cm sampling point. Key: Dashed line, nonozonated influent; dot-dashed line, ozonated influent;

    , nonozonated breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & H A L M O Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 719

    25.0

    20.0

    H 15.0

    10.0

    5.0

    0.0

    . /

    \ \

    ' -.^ /

    . 1 . . . . 1 . . . . . i . 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

    TLme (days) 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Figure 15. IN profiles for influent and 30-cm sampling point. Key: Dashed liney nonozonated influent; dot-dashed line, ozonated influent; , nonozonated

    breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

    Discussion

    Of the three humus sources investigated, only the two natural sources can be considered representative of the humic-substance problems confronted in drinking-water treatment. The commercial humic acid did, however, serve as an interesting comparison because of its large fraction of high-molecular-

    0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

    TLme (days) 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Figure 16. Color profiles for influent and 30-cm sampling point. Key: dashed line, nonozonated influent; dot-dashed line, ozonated influent; , nonozonated

    breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

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  • 720 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    weight compounds. The different character of the commercial humic acid was reflected in a significantly higher spectral absorption coefficient.

    Table III shows significantly lower percentage reductions in U V extinction for commercial humic acid than for the other humus sources. These results, combined with the molecular-size distributions in Table IV, indicate that significant amounts of easily oxidized high-molecular-weight material are still left after application of 1 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C to commercial humic acid. Most of the high-molecular-weight material in Hel lerudmyra water has been oxidized at this ozone dose. A significant drop in D O C value was observed for Hellerudmyra water after complete decolorization at an ozone dose of 2 mg per milligram of D O C . This drop indicates that the large color-imparting molecules are most easily oxidized and that further oxidation of the smaller molecules does not take place until all the large molecules are degraded.

    The isotherm studies leave no doubt that preozonation with ozone doses normally used in drinking-water treatment enhances the adsorbability of organic matter from highly colored humic water. The results indicate that the optimal ozone dose depends on the initial spectral absorption coefficient

    6.0

    0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

    Time (days) 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Figure 17. DOC concentration profiles for 60-cm sampling point. Key: , nonozonated breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

    and molecular-weight distribution; higher doses can be applied to solutions with higher coefficients and higher fractions of large molecules.

    An ozone dose of 2 mg per milligram of D O C had an adverse effect on the adsorption of organic matter from Hellerudmyra water. This effect, which indicates that an optimal dose of ozone is approximately 1 mg per milligram of D O C , can be explained by complete removal of large molecules and further ozonation of the products to polar, less-adsorbable compounds. For

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & HALMO Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 721

    25.0 r-

    20.0 -

    Time (days)

    Figure 18. UV profiles for 60-cm sampling point. Key: , nonozonated breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

    60.0 :

    50.0 -\ : a_ 40.0 -

    0.0 ' , , , , . , . t , ... ... I 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Time (days)

    Figure 19. Color profiles for 60-cm sampling point. Key: , nonozonated breakthrough profile; O, ozonated breakthrough profile.

    Heimdalsmyra water, the difference between isotherms for ozone doses of 1 and 2 mg per milligram of D O C were insignificant. In this case there was no significant decrease in D O C value for the higher dose.

    The large improvement in adsorbability for commercial humic acid that results from an increase in the ozone dose from 0.5 to 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C indicates that even higher doses would benefit the adsorption. A relatively strong color indicated that a significant amount of color-imparting

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  • 722 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    6.0

    5.0

    4 CD

    3 3.0 h

    0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Time (days)

    Figure 20. DOC concentration profiles for effluent. Key: , nonozonated effluent; O, ozonated effluent.

    25.0

    20.0

    15.0

    10.0 i

    5.0

    c: 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 TLme (days)

    Figure 21. UV profiles for effluent. Key: , nonozonated effluent; O, ozonated effluent.

    substances was still left in the solution after application of the ozone dose of 1.0 mg per milligram of D O C . An adverse effect of increased polarity would not be expected until the color-imparting substances had been oxidized.

    The agreement between experimental data and the Freundlich parameters in Table IV for Hellerudmyra water was good, even though the data corresponding to ozone doses of 0.5 and 1.0 indicate the presence of non-

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & HALMO Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 723

    60.0 :

    50.0 ":

    \ : CL_ 40.0 7 CD :

    30.0 1

    0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

    Time (days)

    Figure 22. Color profiles for effluent. Key:UY nonozonated effluent; O, ozonated effluent.

    adsorbable organic matter. The modified model gave a better fit in the case of an ozone dose of 1, with a significantly higher KF value and a lower 1/n value. Good agreement between experimental data and the Freundlich model was obtained for Heimdalsmyra water. For commercial humic acid, the model gives a good fit to experimental data at lower concentrations, but the estimated adsorption capacities are too low at higher concentrations.

    Pilot-Scale Study. The results from the pilot-scale study confirm the trend of increased adsorbability of organic substances as a result of preozonation observed in the laboratory studies. The importance of the contact time is clearly illustrated by the differences among color retentions at the different sampling points. The color-imparting substances that cause the immediate breakthrough at the top of the column are adsorbed when the contact time becomes sufficiently long. The effluent color values were, however, too high after a few days to meet drinking-water standards when activated carbon was used as the only treatment.

    Biological Activity in Pilot Plant. The pilot-scale study leaves no doubt that the major improvement in removal efficiency resulting from ozonation is caused by enhancement of adsorptive properties. Some biological growth in the system handling ozonated water was observed, whereas none was observed in the other system. The improvement of adsorption capacity and rate is illustrated by the initial concentration profiles. No biological activity was detected until 3 weeks after startup. The drop in D O C concentration after this time, with no corresponding drop in U V extinction or color, shows that the microorganisms preferentially take care of the oxidation prod-

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  • 724 AQUATO HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    ucts that are not detected by U V or color measurements. The color-imparting substances must therefore be eliminated by adsorptive removal.

    Filter systems where biological activity occur are often characterized as biological filters. In this study, the biological activity did not seem to take place in the carbon filter, but rather in the system ahead of the filter. Because sand filters have been shown to be comparable to carbon filters in biological removal efficiency (25), a slow sand filter was used in this study to simulate biological removal in the carbon filter. Comparison with the rapid sand filter indicated that the sand filter did not give significant additional removal of organic matter and that the slight removal observed was caused by filtration rather than biodgradation.

    Flowing water is a good medium for biological activity if the nutrient requirements are satisfied, and it is likely that the biological activity often occurs in the tubing system between different process units. Biological removal in the carbon beds may, however, be more important in systems treating water with a higher fraction of easily biodegradable matter. The reason why biological activity seemed to be limited to the tubing system in this study is probably that only a minor fraction of the organic matter was biodegradable. By assuming that the nutrient requirements were satisfied, the biodegradable fraction was estimated to be approximately 10%, on the basis of the D O C data for the last part of the study and the results discussed.

    The pilot study showed that ozonation of humic substances prior to activated-carbon adsorption is advantageous not only because of improved adsorption capacity and adsorption rate, but also because of formation of biodegradable organic matter.

    Comparison of Results. The results for all humic substances studied agree with the hypothesis of increased adsorbability resulting from preo-zonation. The ozone dose that can be applied without adverse effects on adsorption seems to be strongly dependent on the color /DOC ratio and spectral absorption coefficients; the higher these values, the more ozone can be applied. These observations confirm the composition-dependence of ozonation that formed the basis for this study.

    High color values correspond to large fractions of molecules with very high molecular weights. High doses of ozone have to be applied before these molecules are broken up into smaller units for which more of the activated-carbon surface is accessible. The results indicate that the water has to be completely decolorized before the lower fractions are degraded to small, polar, poorly adsorbable molecules. This finding is in agreement with a very high reactivity toward ozone for the color-imparting conjugated chains in the very large molecules. The high reactivity makes this the dominating reaction as long as such material is present.

    In most of the ozonation adsorption studies reported earlier, the adsorption of organic substances onto activated carbon was adversely affected by preozonation. The positive effect of preozonation observed in this study

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  • 39. KAASTRUP & HALMO Ozonation and Activated-Carbon Adsorption 725

    does not contradict the results from previous studies. The explanation for this difference lies in the character of the solution. Several of the previous studies have been performed with water containing relatively small and easily adsorbable organic molecules. Ozonation of such water is likely to reduce the adsorbability because of increased hydrophilicity and polarity of the organic substances. The compounds studied here were large, poorly adsorbable humic compounds that utilized only a small fraction of the adsorption area prior to ozonation. For such compounds the size and structural limitations hindering adsorption are reduced by ozonation; consequently, their adsorbability is increased. The results illustrate the importance of determining the character of the organic substances present in the water before deciding on treatment schemes.

    Conclusions

    Ozonation of water with a high content of color-imparting humic substances resulted in significant reductions in the content of high-molecular-weight material, color, and U V absorption. However, the organic-matter content (DOC) was almost unaffected by ozone doses normally used in drinking-water treatment.

    Preozonation increased the adsorption of organic matter from the three humic solutions studied here. An ozone dose of 1 mg per milligram of D O C seemed optimal for adsorption of organic matter from the two natural solutions. In both cases, the adsorption capacities were reduced by application of 2 mg of ozone per milligram of D O C . The adsorption results for the commercial humic acid combined with a higher fraction of the very large molecules and higher spectral absorption coefficients indicate that the optimal ozone dose for commercial humic acid is higher than 1 mg per milligram of D O C .

    Pilot-scale studies of Heimdalsmyra water confirmed the increased adsorbability that was observed in the laboratory studies. In addition, biological growth was observed in the system treating ozonated water. The biodegradable fraction of organic matter was estimated to be approximately 10% at the applied ozone dose of 1 mg per milligram of D O C . The major biological activity seemed to take place in the tubing system ahead of the carbon filters.

    Acknowledgments

    Several people contributed help and stimulation during the course of this study. The authors thank Paul V. Roberts, whose advice has been of great importance for this work. Special thanks also go to Egi l T. Gjessing for many helpful discussions on humic substances and to R. Scott Summers and Helge Brattebo for inspiring discussions on adsorption matters.

    The funds for this study were provided in part by N T N F (The Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), S I N T E F (the

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  • 726 AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research), and N T H (the Norwegian Institute of Technology).

    References 1. Christman, R. F.; Gjessing, . T. In Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials;

    Christman, R. F.; Gjessing, E. T., Eds.; Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, 1983; pp 517-528.

    2. Gjessing, . T. In Proc. Conjunc. 10th IAWPR Conf.; Edmonton, Alberta, June 1980; Smith, D. W.; Hrudey, E. W., Eds.; Pergamon: Oxford, England, 1981.

    3. Thurman, E. M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R. L. Org. Geochem. 1982, 4, 27-35.

    4. Malcolm, R. L.; MacCarthy, P. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1986, 20, 904-911. 5. McCreary, J. J.; Snoeyink, V. L. Water Res. 1980, 14, 151-160. 6. Lee, M. C.; Snoeyink, V. L. Humic Substances Removal by Activated Carbon;

    Water Resources Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Urbana, 1980.

    7. Weber, W. J., Jr.; Pirbazari, M.; Herbert, M. D. Proc. Am. Water Works Assoc. Annu. Conf. 1978, 98, paper 15-1.

    8. Weber, W. J.; Voice, T. C.; Jodellah, A. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1983, 75, 612.

    9. Frick, B. R.; Bartz, R.; Sontheimer, H.; DiGiano, F. A Carbon Adsorption of Organics from the Aqueous Phase; Suffet, I. H.; McGuire, M. V., Eds.; Ann Arbor Science: Ann Arbor, 1982; Vol. 1, p 229.

    10. Frick, B. R.; Sontheimer, H. Treatment of Water by Granular Activated Carbon; McGuire, M. V.; Suffet, I. H., Eds.; Advances in Chemistry 202; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1983; p 247.

    11. Samdal, J. E. Vattenhygien 1966, 4, 161-165. 12. Meijers, A. P. Water Res. 1976, 11, 647-652. 13. Nebel, C. Public Works 1981, 112(6), 86-90. 14. Flogstad, H. Behandling av humus med ozon; SINTEF report STF21 A84037;

    Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research: Trondheim, Norway, 1984. 15. Benedek, A. International Ozone Institute Symposium on Advanced Ozone

    Technology, Toronto, Ontario; International Ozone Institute: Ontario, 1977. 16. Kuhn, W.; Sontheimer, H.; Steiglitz, L.; Maier, D.; Kurz, R. J. Am. Water

    Works Assoc. 1978, 70, 326-331. 17. Lienhard, H.; Sontheimer, H. Ozone: Sci. Eng. 1979, 1, 61-72. 18. Hubele, C.; Sontheimer, H. Environmental Engineering, Proceedings of the

    1984 Specialty Conference; Pirbazari, M.; Devinney, S., Eds.; American Society of Civil Engineers: New York, 1984; University of Southern California, Los Angeles, June 1984.

    19. Summers, R. S. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1985. 20. Suzuki, M.; Kawazoe, K. Seisan Kenkyu 1974, 26, 383. 21. Altmann, R. S. Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, 1984. 22. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th ed.;

    American Public Health Association: Washington, DC, 1975; p 455. 23. Zepp, R. G.; Schlotzhauer, P. F. Chemosphere 1981, 10, 479-481. 24. Reinhard, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1984, 18, 410-415. 25. Maloney, S. W.; Bancroft, K.; Pipes, W. O.; Suffet, I. H. J. Environ. Eng. Div.

    (Am. Soc. Civ. Eng.) 1984, 110, 519-533.

    RECEIVED for review July 24, 1987. ACCEPTED for publication April 20, 1988.

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    39 Removal of Aquatic Humus by Ozonation and Activated-Carbon AdsorptionBackgroundApproachExperimental ProceduresResultsDiscussionConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferences

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