advances in aquatic microbiology, volume 2
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114 Book reviews
The problem of managing the quality of the estuary by manipulating the waste loads which are discharged into it is discussed in (6). The objective is to minimize the sum of piping or treatment costs and environmental damage. Practically, this is achieved by mini- mizing the cost of achieving a given water quality, which is measured in terms of the maximum and the average oxygen depletion over the length of the estuary.
The solution strategy is implemented in (7) by means of discrete marginal analysis; chapter (7) concludes with a discussion on the dynamic investment problem in waste management.
This is a nicely produced and highly mathematical book which presents a useful review of several old and well-tried techniques in estuarine water-quality problems, whilst intro- ducing some new techniques. The oldest and simplest model for oxygen depletion is used, and the oscillating frame model for water movements has previously been described many times. Nevertheless, the book does provide some insights into estuarine tidal motion, waste-disposal by dilution and abatement costs.
R. J. UNCLES
Advances in Aquatic Microbiology, Volume 2
Edited by M. R. Droop and H. W. Jannasch
Academic Press, London, 1980, xii+ 356 pp., E20.80
In 1968 a volume was published entitled Advances in Microbiology of the Sea, Volume 1. Volume 2 never materialized and I felt that a potentially useful review series had been lost. Happily the publishers decided to resurrect the theme in 1977 and to broaden the scope. The present volume is the second in the series of Advances in Aquatic Microbiology.
The scope of aquatic microbiology is vast, but the editors have achieved a reasonable balance and have included chapters on most aspects of aquatic microbiology in the first two volumes; there is perhaps a slight over-emphasis on the technique of continuous cul- ture, but this bias is forgivable--editors must be expected to favour their own fields of research. One of the strengths of a review series like this is exposure to subjects outside ones own narrow research interests and a good review can stimulate an interest where none existed before. Many of the chapters in this volume have fulfilled this rBle and rather esoterii: titles have proved to be interesting chapters.
The first chapter by Varon and Shilo on the ecology of aquatic bdellovibrios is an example of a chapter which I found more interesting than I had expected from the title. These fascinating bacteria penetrate other bacteria and utilize their protoplasm to produce progeny which are released on lysis of the host bacterium. Although bdellovibrios are usually associated with sewage, and their distribution is often correlated with pollution, the reviewers point out that there are autochthonous marine and freshwater bdellovibrios. It is interesting to speculate how bacteria which depend on colision with another bacteria before growth can occur, survive in a dilute medium such as sea-water where the proba- bility of encountering another bacterium is low. This review demonstrates that, although we are beginning to understand the biology and physiology of these unusual bacteria, there is very little information on the rBle of bdellovibrios in nature.
Book reviews 115
The second chapter is on the molecular aspects of bacterial growth at high pressures. With the increased interest in microbiology of the deep-sea, this review of barotolerant and barophilic growth is quite topical. The third chapter on methane cycling by Rudd and Taylor is excellent; the authors cover both freshwater and marine systems in a very com- prehensive review and highlight the fundamental differences that have been found in the turnover of methane in these two environments. The next two chapters are of a similar nature on the continuous culture of phytoplankton and on the growth of infusorian popu- lations. It is a little surprising to see the chapter on ciliates included in this book since volume 1 also had a chapter on protozoan predation; however, there is little duplication of material in the two chapters. The very important field of fish disease is covered by the chapter on furunculosis, the necrotic ulcerations which result from bacterial infection of salmonids.
Finally, there is a chapter by Lee on marine detritus decomposition; I find this a particu- larly useful chapter because the author has not restricted discussion to microbes, but has considered the interactions occurring with the meiofauna and larger animals. This is a refreshing approach to lind in a book on aquatic microbiology because interactions occur- ring between bacteria and other components of the ecosystem are all too often ignored.
This series is a very useful addition to the review literature. My only complaint is that the frequency of publication is too long; aquatic microbiology is a rapidly moving field of research and there is surely enough material to ensure a biannual (at least) volume. The purchase price of E20.80 is not excessive in these times of high book prices and I believe represents good value for money.
I. R. JOINT
Marine Environmental Pollution, 2: Dumping and Mining. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 27B
Edited by R. A. Geyer
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1981, xxi+ 574 pp., 8117.00
The stated objective of this volume is to put into better perspective the use of the oceans, and the nearshore zones, for the disposal of actual and potential pollutants. To this end some 16 papers have been collected together and the common factors in these identified and discussed in an introductory chapter. This introduction is largely successful in that means of objectively assessing the sea disposal options are clearly set out and rational conclusions are drawn as to acceptable disposal strategies.
The title of the volume, Dumping and Mining is somewhat misleading. The first part of the volume is devoted to six papers on the effects of discharges in coastal areas, two papers on dredging and a paper on heterotrophic processes derived from the CEPEX experiments. The second part has only three papers on dumping and three on mining, with a general paper on the role of suspended solids in pollutant transport.
As might be expected in a collection such as this the quality of the papers varies consider- ably. In the case of inshore waters they inciude a very clear treatment of the work of the Southern California Coastal Waters Research Project, which evaluates the overall impact