A study of land reclamation and ecological restoration in a resource-exhausted city – a case study of Huaibei in China

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [McGill University Library]On: 01 October 2013, At: 00:21Publisher: Taylor &amp; FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>International Journal of Mining,Reclamation and EnvironmentPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/nsme20</p><p>A study of land reclamation andecological restoration in a resource-exhausted city a case study of Huaibeiin ChinaWu Xiao a , Zhenqi Hu a , Jing Li a , Heyu Zhang a &amp; Jialiang Hu aa Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, ChinaUniversity of Mining &amp; Technology (Beijing), Beijing, 100083,ChinaPublished online: 20 Sep 2011.</p><p>To cite this article: Wu Xiao , Zhenqi Hu , Jing Li , Heyu Zhang &amp; Jialiang Hu (2011) A study ofland reclamation and ecological restoration in a resource-exhausted city a case study of Huaibeiin China, International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 25:4, 332-341, DOI:10.1080/17480930.2011.608888</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480930.2011.608888</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;</p></li><li><p>Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>A study of land reclamation and ecological restoration in a resource-exhausted city a case study of Huaibei in China</p><p>Wu Xiao, Zhenqi Hu*, Jing Li, Heyu Zhang and Jialiang Hu</p><p>Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, China University of Mining &amp;Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China</p><p>(Received 1 March 2011; nal version received 10 August 2011)</p><p>Eco-city construction is a powerful method which can advance a city fromtraditional industrial civilisation to ecological civilisation. The city of Huaibei,with 50 years of coal mining history, has been listed as a national resource-exhausted city. The citys sustainable development and ecological restorationwork face severe challenges. This study presents a time-space evolution analysis ofmining subsidence to show the evolution and the distribution of the subsidencearea in Huaibei. Intensive use was made of land evaluation to formulate land usemeasures. According to this analysis, and based on the popular eco-reconstruc-tion movement, suggestions for land reclamation and eco-reconstruction areproposed for the city of Huaibei. The paper aims to make strategicrecommendations to help Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhaustedcity to an eco-city.</p><p>Keywords: resource-exhausted city; ecological restoration; Huaibei city</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>Resource-based cities are developed or constructed around resource development.Following the depletion of resources and transformation of the economic system,resource-based cities gradually have to face multiple pressures, e.g. large population,shortage of resources and a damaged environment. According to statistics, Chinahas 118 resource-based cities, more than 30 of which are facing resource depletionproblems. Out of about 8000 mines in existence more than 400 are now in depletion,2/3 of which have entered old age so their depletion process is accelerating.Resource-exhausting mines in China are facing the challenge of ecologicalrestoration. The key problem of resource-exhausting mines is the serious damagethey create to the environment: air pollution, acidication of water bodies, decline ofsoil quality, loss of biodiversity, destruction of natural landscapes, etc. The pollutionfrom closed mines and geological disasters in the mining legacy will continue tomake a serious impact on the surrounding environment. Accordingly, ecologicalrestoration and environmental improvement of resource-exhausting mines havebecome important factors for achieving a smooth economic transition; manyscholars have made studies of the transformation of resource-exhausted cities [13].</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email: huzq@cumtb.edu.cn</p><p>International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment</p><p>Vol. 25, No. 4, December 2011, 332341</p><p>ISSN 1748-0930 print/ISSN 1748-0949 online</p><p> 2011 Taylor &amp; Francishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480930.2011.608888</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>The 10th ve-year programme of China for national economic and socialdevelopment highlighted active and steady closure of resource-exhausting mines,promoting ongoing industry, and replacement industries in cities and large minesbased on exploitation of resources according to local conditions, and studying newmodels for mining exploitation. Meanwhile, resource-exhausting cities continue toattract major central government investment during the 11th ve-year plan.Meanwhile, coal mining subsidence control and eco-environmental protection andrestoration will be priority areas for public funding [4]. In addition, promotion ofbrown eld reclamation will be an important measure for achieving landconservation [5].</p><p>Huaibei City, which is listed as one of the second batch of national resource-exhausting pilot cities, has more than 50 years of coal mining history. Since 1958, whenthe rst mine was opened, the city has produced 66108 t coal, which has made animportant contribution to the economic and social development of China. However,because of the numerous thick coal seams and the long wall caving mining method, alarge area of ground subsidence was caused. By 2018, the subsidence area will be up toabout 20,000 hm2. Huaibei City put forward a development strategy to create an eco-city in 2008. The strategy indicates how to produce good ecological, social and economicbenets by maximising the re-development and utilisation of the subsidence area. Thestrategy takes into account the local natural conditions and resources and aims to fullthe needs of sustainable development of the mine as an imminent, urgent problem.</p><p>2. Eco-reconstruction of resource-exhausting cities in China</p><p>2.1. Rural eco-agriculture</p><p>Chinas resource-exhausting cities are located in a range of geographical sites.Therefore, there are dierent eco-types, e.g. mountain, plain farming and grasslandeco-patterns, dierent ecological zones with dierent conditions leading to dierentecological modes. For example, the pattern for plain farming and pastoral areas isfruitvegetablespeaspoultryinsectsgrass, or milk cowsforestgrassinsectsed-ible fungibiogas, etc. The basic model of eco-agriculture is integration, coordina-tion, circulation (benign), and regeneration [6].</p><p>2.2. Wetland parks and suburban parks</p><p>Comprehensive treatment of large mining-damaged areas outside the city couldprovide a broad ecological hinterland for the city and change black gold into agreen lung. Water systems in mining areas connect with the winding river and therippling blue water surface. The water system, the green belt and other ecologicallands are turned into urban country parkland, wetlands or mine parks, and form apart of the urban development space [6,7]. The landscape can be divided intodierent levels with dierent signicance, to form a mixed, organic landscape axis.</p><p>2.3. Mine parks</p><p>Twenty-eight national mine park units, e.g. Huang Song-yu in Beijing, which passedthrough the National Mine Park Mine Leading Group Qualications in early 2006,indicate that Chinese mine park development has entered a substantive stage ofoperation. The mine parks mostly display the process of mine development, coal</p><p>International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment 333</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>geology, exploration, the research history and the geology history of the miningregion, the history of formation and evolution of the coal, and the central position ofcoal development in the national economy. The coal mine exhibition hall, withpictures, texts, models, video and multimedia forms of information, introducesvisitors to the impact of mineral development on the local ecological environmentand the results of environmental recovery and management [8].</p><p>3. Time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibei</p><p>3.1. Subsidence status of the city of Huaibei</p><p>There are seven state-owned mines and more than 10 local small mines in the city ofHuaibei. According to the local Land Board 2008 Reserves Report, the grossproduction of the local coal mines was about 1,321,700 t, accounting for 12.03% ofthe citys production. After 40 years of coal mining, there was 63.05 km2 of collapsearea at the end of 2001. Then, with the development of coal mining, the extent of thesubsidence area increased year by year. At the end of 2008, the internal collapse areaamounted to 79.20 km2, including a perennial water area of 19.42 km2. Yangzhuangcoal mine collapsed to a depth of as much as 15.0 m in the deepest part, forming adeep subsidence area. The distribution of mines is shown in Figure 1.</p><p>3.2. Subsidence area in sub-scenario simulation time</p><p>Within the city, Huaibeis coal subsidence rate is about 0.216 hm2/10,000 tons. Since2001, the annual increase in subsidence has amounted to about 133200 hm2. At theend of 2004, due to the impact of soaring international oil prices and rapid economicgrowth in China, coal production in Huaibei reached its highest record, which led toa maximum annual land subsidence increase: 630.21 hm2 lands subsided in 2004.From that time on, coal mining conditions showed signs of depletion, coalproduction declined, and the annual subsidence rate consistent with the coalproduction, inclined to merely 50.46 hm2 in 2008. The 20012008 annualincremental change of subsidence in Huaibei city is shown in Figure 2.</p><p>After nearly 50 years of mining, the state of mining in each block in Huaibei hasgradually become overripe. According to information provided by the Bureau ofMines, one of the seven state-owned mines, Xiangcheng mine, was closed because ofresource depletion. Five out of the six remaining mines will reach the end of theirlives in 2015. With coal mining, the northern and central subsidence will graduallyexpand in the current basis area. As of 2025, the subsidence area in Huaibei willreach 122.42 km2, of which 83.74 km2 will be within the city area and 38.68 km2</p><p>outside it. The collapse between 2009 and 2015 and the space-time evolution inHuaibei are shown in Figure 3.</p><p>4. Intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures for Huaibei</p><p>4.1. Intensive use of land</p><p>The development of a city does not depend only on its own resources. Otherimportant factors are the development of urban functions and layout planning, inorder to avoid inadequate urban functions, urban area expansion and a land usestructure of disordered chaos [9]. Attention must also be given to exploitation ofmineral resources in resource-exhausting cities after land reclamation and ecological</p><p>334 W. Xiao et al.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>restoration. For this purpose, resource-based urban land use assessment for thesustainable development of cities can provide some guidance. Therefore, vecategories including degree of land use, land use structure and reasonable, inputlevel, output eciency, and land use intensication potential are constructed in themodel to assess land use intensity in resource-exhausting cities [10]. The assessmentmodel includes 12 sub-categories, which are shown in Table 1. Applying the fuzzycomprehensive evaluation method, the land use intensity of Huaibei city is measuredand evaluated. In this study, the following evaluation model of urban land use indexis used for calculation:</p><p>Figure 1. Distribution of the coal mines in Huaibei.</p><p>International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment 335</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>SIIULU Xn</p><p>i1Ai Wi</p><p>In the formula, Ai is the intensive use of urban land in the standardised values ofcore indicators i;Wi is the weight of core indicators of urban land use i; n is the totalnumber of items of core indicators; i 1, 2, 3, . . . , n. The constructed system ofintensive land use evaluation as is shown in Table 1.</p><p>The evaluation results show that the land use level of the main city of Huaibei isIII, which means the land use is not intensive. Further analysis showed that, on theone hand, Huaibei urban land use is not high; there is great potential output of landand large areas of abandoned mining area. On the other hand, the construction ofurban expansion takes up lots of farmland, and inecient use of the stock of cityland is widespread.</p><p>4.2. Land use recommendations</p><p>Under government planning requirements, the land policy of Huaibei is Expend towest, Transfer to east, North advance, South prior, Maintain the tour form. So the cityconstructs primarily in the existing built-up area of the western and northerndevelopment. Overall, population growth and economic development led to the</p><p>Figure 2. Urban districts annual increment of subsidence land.</p><p>Figure 3. 20092025 subsidence distribution of various stages in Huaibei.</p><p>336 W. Xiao et al.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [M</p><p>cGill</p><p> Univ</p><p>ersity</p><p> Libr</p><p>ary] a</p><p>t 00:2</p><p>1 01 O</p><p>ctobe</p><p>r 201</p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>increase of the construction area within the city and the reduction of cultivated land.Land remediation can improve soil quality, and improve the road forest belt and waterconservancy facilities to increase the eective cultivation. Through land reclamation,long-term collapse of the new land could increase agricultural land within the main cityto reach the long-term urban development requirements. In addition, a large-scalecollapse area of deep water with good quality provides a good opportunity for tourismdevelopment and comprehensive utilisation of water in Huaibei [11]. South LakeWetland Park which is located in the Yangzhuang coal mine collapse ar...</p></li></ul>

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