9–1 supervision in organizations chapter 9 providing effective leadership
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- 91 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 9 Providing Effective Leadership
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- 92 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1.Define leader and explain the difference between a leader and a supervisor. 2.Identify the traits that may help you become a successful leader. 3.Define charisma and its key components. 4.Describe the skills of a visionary leader. 5.Differentiate between task-centered and people- oriented leadership styles. 6.Explain situational leadership.
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- 93 Understanding Leadership Leadership defined The ability an individual demonstrates to influence others to act in a particular way through direction, encouragement, sensitivity, consideration and support.
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- 94 Supervisors Versus Leaders Not all leaders are supervisors, nor are all supervisors leaders. Supervisors Persons whose influence on others is limited to the appointed authority of their positions to reward and punish. Leaders Persons with managerial and personal power who can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons formal (position) authority alone.
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- 95 Trait Theories Of Leadership Trait theories of leadership Theories that attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders Attempts to identify traits that always differentiate leaders from followers and effective leaders from ineffective leaders have failed. Attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful.
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- 96 Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders from Nonleaders
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- 97 Charismatic Leadership Charismatic leader defined An individual with a compelling vision or sense of purpose, an ability to communicate that vision in clear terms that followers can understand, a demonstrated consistency and focus in pursuit of the vision, and an understanding of his or her own strengths.
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- 98 Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leader influences followers by: Stating a vision that provides a sense of community by linking the present with a better future. Communicating high expectations and expressing confidence that followers can attain them. Conveying, through words and actions, a new set of values, and by his or her behavior setting an example for followers to imitate. Making self-sacrifices and engaging in unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision.
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- 99 Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Idealized goal Ability to help others understand the goal Strong convictions about the goal Behavior that is unconventional Assertive and self-confident High self-monitoring Appearance as a change agent
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- 910 Visionary Leadership A vision should create enthusiasm, bringing energy and commitment to the organization. The key properties of a vision are inspirational possibilities that are value centered, realizable, and have superior imagery and articulation. Visionary leadership The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future that grows out of and improves upon the present
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- 911 Skills of Visionary Leaders The ability to explain the vision to others. Make the vision clear in terms of required actions and aims through clear oral and written communication. (Ronald Reagan return to happier & prosperous times) The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through the leaders behavior. Behaving in ways that continually convey and reinforce the vision. (Herb Keller SW Airlines) The ability to extend the vision to different leadership contexts. Sequencing activities so the vision can be applied in a variety of situations
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- 912 How to Become a Leader Development of the following skills: Technical skills (ability to assist others) Tools, procedures, and techniques that are unique to your specialized situation Conceptual skills (anticipate the future) Ability to think in the abstract, analyze info, and make connections between the data Networking skills Socialize and interact with outsiders Human relation skills (people skills) Work with, understand, and motivate other around you
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- 913 The Ohio State Studies Studies that sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior Task-centered leader People-centered leader
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- 914 Task-centered leadership Task-centered leadership defined An individual with a strong tendency to emphasize the technical or task aspects of a job Ensures compliance with rules, regulations, and production goals Example: Autocratic Leader (taskmaster) Leaves no doubt as to whos in charge, and who has the authority and power in the group
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- 915 People-Centered People-centered leader defined Emphasizes interpersonal relations with those he or she leads. (preferred by todays workforce) Takes personal interest in needs of his/her employees Example: Participative leadership style Leadership style of an individual that seeks input from followers for many of the activities in the organization Perspective #1: Consultative-participative leadership Obtain input, but makes final decision Perspective #2: Democratic-participative leadership Obtain input and decision is made by the group
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- 916 Situational Leadership Situational leadership theory (Hersey & Blanchard) Leaders should adjust (high-self monitors) their leadership stylestelling, selling, participating, and delegatingin accordance with the readiness of their followers. New leadership model and getting much attention. Acceptance: Leader effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. Readiness: a followers ability and willingness to perform. At higher levels of readiness, leaders respond by reducing control over and involvement with employees.
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- 917 Situational Leadership
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- 918 Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Model Exhibit 11.7 Source: Reprinted with permission from the Center for Leadership Studies. Situational Leadership is a registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, Escondido, California. All rights reserved.
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- 919 Situational Leadership R1 (Telling) Employee does not know how to do a job function R2 (Selling) Employee questions why certain things have to be done a certain way R3 (Participative Leadership) Employee has become the expert on the job and no longer needs to be told what to do R4 (Delegating) Employee has gained trust and needs to be left alone. Assign tasks and let him/her do the taks
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- 920 Credibility & Trust Credibility Employees judge credibility in terms of: Honesty Competence Ability to inspire Trust The belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader
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- 921 Five Dimensions of Trust Integrity Honesty and truthfulness Competence Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills Consistency Reliability, predictability, and good judgment Loyalty Willingness to protect and save face for a person Openness Willingness to share ideas and information freely
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- 922 The Challenge of Team Leadership Becoming an effective team leader requires: Learning to share information. Developing the ability to trust others. Learning to give up authority. Knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede. New roles that team leaders take on Managing the teams external boundary Facilitating the team process
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