4.1.1 Biodiversity

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4.1.1 Biodiversity. The amount of biological diversity per unit area. It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity. Biodiversity. Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species. Genetic Diversity. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>4.1.1 Biodiversity</p> <p>4.1.1 BiodiversityBiodiversityThe amount of biological diversity per unit area.It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity</p> <p>Genetic DiversityIs the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species.Habitat DiversityVariety of forests, deserts, grasslands, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, wetlands, and other biological communities, (niches per unit area).</p> <p>Species DiversityIs the number of species or organisms per unit area found in different habitats of the planet.</p> <p>State of US species.Projected Status of Biodiversity19982018</p> <p>Critical and endangeredThreatenedStable or intactANTARCTICANORTHAMERICAEUROPEAFRICAASIASOUTHAMERICAAUSTRALIAPacificOceanAntarctic CirclePacificOceanTropic of CancerTropic of CapricornIndianOceanAtlanticOcean1509060E030W9012015006030N30S60Arctic CircleArctic CircleWhat are the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat ? How does diversity change during succession? How does habitat diversity influence species diversity and genetic diversity? How does ecosystem complexity, with its variety of nutrient and energy pathways, provide stability? How do human activities (agriculture, mining, logging, etc.) modify succession? What are the potential positive and negative results of human activities that simplify ecosystems? (monocrop agriculture)Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?Instrumental value: usefulness to us.</p> <p>Intrinsic value:because they exist, Regardless of whetherthey are useful to us or not.GoodsFood, fuel, ecosystems, species, fiber, lumber, paper, 90% of todays food crops40% of all medicines (85% of antibiotics)</p> <p>FoxgloveDigitalis purpurea, EuropeDigitalis for heart failure</p> <p>Pacific yewTaxus brevifolia, Pacific NorthwestOvarian cancerEcological Services:Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biospherePhotosynthesisPollinationSoil formation and maintenanceNutrient recyclingModeration of weather extremesPurification of air and waterInformation:Genetic information: adaptation and evolutionGenetic information for genetic engineeringEducational and scientific informationOption:People would be willing to pay in advance to preserve the option of directly using a resource such as a tree, an elephant, a forest or a clean lake.Recreation:ExistenceAestheticProtect natural capital for future generations</p> <p>Nonutilitarian:Hunting, fishing, swimming, scuba diving, water skiing, . . . . Eco-tourism</p>