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  • 3 EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

    EXPORTS KEEP CLIMBING Government and business are cooperating in a big effort to increase U.S. sales to foreign countries

    VIRGINIA KINNARD, C/iewi/c

  • U.S. EXPORTS OF SELECTED CHEMICALS IN RELATION TO PRODUCTION

    Commodity

    Phenol Colors, dyes, stains, and color lakes Color lakes and toners Medicinal chemicals Penicillin Dihydrostreptomycin Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) Insecticides and fungicides for agricultural use DDT Copper sulfate Plastics and resin material Calcium carbide Borates Sodium carbonate, calcined (soda ash) Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) Synthetic anhydrous ammonia Chlorine Carbon black Paints, varnishes, lacquers, and fillers Ammonium sulfate Phosphate rock Source: International Economic Analysis Division,

    Percentage < 1951

    5.4 11.3 7.7

    14.5 26.4 n.a. 16.1 18.5 n.a. 40.3 7.8 0.9

    n.a. 2.8 8.8 0.3 0.6

    25.8 2.4

    n.a. 15.6

    ureau of Foi

    1956

    7.6 6.8 9.3

    10.0 29.1 35.1 4.7

    28.7 41.6 45.2 8.2 0.4

    44.6 4.2 6.3 1.6 1.1

    23.1 2.1

    36.6 20.4

    Df Production 1959

    5.7 6.7 9.2

    n.a. 23.5 44.3 6.4

    n.a. 48.0 6.6

    n.a. 0.4

    40.9 2.7 5.3 1.9 0.7

    26.1 2.1

    23.3 20.2

    reign Commerce, U.S.

    1960

    6.3 7.5 7.6

    n.a. 27.6 40.1 5.1

    n.a. 60.3 25.6 n.a. n.a. 46.9 2.9 4.9 2.3 0.6

    26.4 1.9

    15.8 24.7 Depart-

    ment of Commerce

    27 % gain in 1960. Shortages of skilled labor throughout the area also limited expansion and demand for chemicals. Exports to the European Economic Community (EEC) countries increased more than 5%, but those to the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) decreased almost 3 % .

    The largest loss among leading purchasers was to the United Kingdom, which dropped to second place because of a tightening-up program after the liberalization measures of 1960 and a slower growth rate. The Netherlands, with $100.6 million, became our leading Western European customer for the first time. Pharmaceuticals led with a 44% increase and coal tar products were up 36%. Italy, taking third place from West Germany, had increases in all product groups except specialties and paints, where declines were small. Coal tar products to Germany were up 32% but industrial chemicals were down 39%.

    The U.S. is by far Germany's leading chemical supplier, but a lull in the German economy, lack of labor for capacity operation, and a cautious inventory policy affected our exports. France in sixth place took $10 million more than in 1960. Industrial chemicals had a whopping 7 1 % increase and coal tar products were up 44%. The boom in French industry began later than that in other Western European countries, and demand is strong from an economy operating at high levels. Switzerland took $4 million more than last year.

    Latin America, formerly our leading regional customer, remained a soft spot. Exports were up in 1960 after a slight drop in 1959, but decreased 4% in 1961. Restrictions on trade with Cuba, exchange difficulties and other economic problems, and heavy competition from West Europe, Japan, and the Soviet bloc held down U.S. exports. Shipments to Mexico, the largest single purchaser, dropped from $114 million in 1960 to $108 million in 1961, the largest loss being in pharmaceuticals. Both Venezuela and Brazil upped their purchases but did not make the 1960 percentage gains. Argentina took $26 million, the largest increase being in chemical specialties.

    Strong demand for U.S. products is held down by lack of exchange. Argentina and Brazil have had such difficulties, and recently imposed restrictions in Chile will limit our exports

    there. Prices for Latin American commodities have sometimes been weak, which gives the Soviet bloc an advantage through barter trade. The whole area will ultimately be a much larger market as industrialization progresses and consumer income rises, but the immediate outlook is uncertain and political conditions will have a strong effect.

    Exports to Asia were up 14% despite a 24% drop to India. As in 1960, smaller countries increased their purchases and gains were more widespread. Fertilizers, insecticides and other items in the specialties group, and pharmaceuticals are prominent items. Japan, our second largest chemical customer, took 2 1 % more than in 1960. Chemical specialties were up $13 million and coal tar products $5 million. Fertilizers and industrial chemicals had smaller gains. Some slowdown in the economy may follow efforts of the Japanese government to dampen the boom, but imports are expected to benefit from liberalization measures already in force and those to become effective in October. Demand for petrochemical raw materials and intermediates continues strong. The Japan Foreign Trade Council predicts U.S. chemical sales of $500 million to that country by 1970.

    The largest loss to India was in chemical specialties, down $9 million. India has adopted stringent measures to conserve its very low ex

    change reserves and the immediate outlook for increased exports is not favorable. However, opportunities for licensing arrangements and other participation in the Indian chemical industry are good. Indian trade with the Soviet bloc, which allows payment in rupees, is growing. Indonesia took $7 million more and Korea an additional $6.7 million. Shipments to the Philippines and Hong Kong were down slightly.

    Trade with Africa was up 11% despite a 7.6% decrease in exports to the Union of South Africa. Exports to Egypt almost doubled, mainly because of a steep rise in pesticides. The African countries are large potential markets, but no sudden gains can be expected. Trade has been restricted by foreign exchange difficulties, low per capita income, and lack of industrial development and political stability. However, rising exports to many smaller countries in the area indicate economic growth. New markets also are emerging in the Middle East, a long neglected area.

    Commodities

    Coal tar products had the largest percentage increase in the chemical group, 12.8%. Cresols rose sharply-more than one third of domestic production was shipped abroad in 1961 to satisfy high demand, especially from Western Europe, Latin America, and Japan. Greater demand for rubber

    S E P T . 3, 1962 P A R T 2 C & E N 35

  • UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS (Quantity in thousands of pounds unless otherwise noted; value in thousands of dollars)

    1961 1960 1951 1947

    Grand total Chemicals and related products

    Coal tar products Coal tar acids Other coal tar intermediates Rubber compounding agents Colors, dyes, and stains Medicinal and pharmaceutical

    preparations, total Vitamins and viosterols Insulin and other glandular

    products, excluding enzymes Sulfonamide drugs Antibiotics

    Chemical specialties, total Insecticides and fungicides Plastics and resin materials Organic surface-active agents Antiknock compounds, nonpet.

    Industrial chemicals, total Acids and anhydrides Alcohols Acetone Synthetic collecting agents Cellulose acetate, not plasticized Boric acid and borates, crude and

    refined Sodium compounds, total Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydroxide Gases, compressed, liquefied, and

    solidified Pigments, paints, and varnishes

    Iron oxide pigments Zinc oxide Lithopone Carbon black Titanium dioxide and pigments Nitrocellulose and other cellulose

    lacquers (1000 gal.) Ready-mixed paints, stains, and

    enamels (1000 gal.) Fertilizer materials, total (1000 tons)

    Ammonium sulfate (1000 tons) Other nitrogenous materials

    (1000 tons) Phosphate rock (1000 tons) Superphosphate (1000 tons) Fertilizer mixtures, prepared

    (1000 tons) Explosives, fuses, blasting caps Soap and toilet preparations

    Allied products from other groups Naval stores, gums, resins

    Rosin, gum and wood Turpentine (1000 gal.)

    Crude drugs, herbs, leaves, roots Linseed oil Essential oils Sulfur, crude and refined (1000 LT.)

    Source: U.S. Department of Commerce

    Quantity

    74,010 407,661 23,523 12,993

    879,221 219,230 88,741

    74,015

    15,176 27,079 6,894

    538,543 1,053,071

    264,218 21,992

    454,885

    6,426 4,366 1,217

    522,331 62,207

    825

    4,146

    144

    231 4,617

    525

    86

    243,896 3,811

    19,462 7,297 1,596

    Value

    1,835,036 1,725,339

    185,489 10,949 66,160 15,421 24,595

    275,253 31,740

    30,819 7,151

    84,002 696,428 106,940 292,878 37,083 30,499

    299,038 11,370 50,704 1,014 7,986 2,565

    23,212 34,423 4,045

    595 11,952

    3,939 106,127

    855 671 88

    48,166 9,216

    3,595

    16,014 127,490

    5,053

    18,810 36,910 23,695

    6,479 11,971 23,543

    109,697 53,123 31,101 1,474 3,806 2,509

    13,635 36,624

    Quantity

    75,682 426,606 20,067 13,969

    825,167 204,477 65,693

    88,364

    10,687 25,830 6,676

    601,212 1,125,876

    309,371 21,480

    475,021

    7,724 4,273

    380 543,032 67,311

    920

    4,530

    237

    279 4,756

    467

    71

    338,287 4,106

    55,931 6,979 1,785

    Value

    1,814,112 1,679,921

    166,663 12,403 71,128 12,781 22,863

    274,717 31,327

    30,956 6,824

    88,370 662,576 105,892 297,485 36,563 22,730

    310,900 17,338 65,082

    826 7,791 2,731

    25,576 36,885 5,143

    619 14,311

    3,704 108,037

    1,113 659 35

    49,601 10,001

    3,809

    16,494 118,995

    6,701

    18,949 37,543 19,882

    5,383 13,197 24,836

    134,191 68,034 41,532 1,888 4,549 5,871

    13,475 42,262

    Quantity

    32,518 60,291 13,541 22,521

    n.a. 94,612

    40,614

    34,305 27,127 26,405

    426,889 1,171,745

    339,682 29,852

    547,124

    28,938 17,789 40,947

    433,493 78,484

    2,791

    6,651 2,788

    134

    119 1,934

    299

    81

    4,345 16,977 3,695 1,307

    Value

    1,076,497 977,090 77,693 9,358

    20,177 6,788

    31,407

    281,382 35,316

    18,974 15,385

    123,431 271,906 64,821 89,936 16,632 31,391

    172,397 6,375

    14,667 4,052 5,693 9,845

    13,322 57,635 7,988

    925 31,036

    6,086 103,174

    1,490 3,239 3,616

    39,155 13,274

    6,652

    19,102 50,677 6,797

    7,346 14,750 5,848

    5,567 n.a.

    19,861 99,407 48,031

    355,691 5,816 3,265 2,988

    11,530 33,593

    Quantity

    26,727 39,537 10,131 68,270

    n.a. 36,218

    102,290

    37,063 16,049 6,156

    171,473 871,662 214,316 60,635

    276,570

    67,482 38,163 27,305

    319,076 42,343

    3,382

    7,549 1,470

    89

    182 753 260

    19

    6,109 7,721 3,089 1,349

    Value

    879,440 783,215 120,860

    5,241 13,138 4,426

    80,728

    177,039 27,669

    13,358 11,593 34,502

    153,240 23,330 64,981 3,968 9,000

    160,209 11,896 18,017 3,645 3,294 2,396

    4,652 57,573 8,704 1,737

    26,665

    5,114 85,507 2,200 4,770 1,784

    26,849 5,184

    7,891

    20,988 35,609 5,029

    9,465 7,005 5,411

    1,089 9,437

    41,314 96,225 47,759 30,889 4,586 4,349 2,505

    13,905 27,707

    chemicals stems from higher consump-tion of synthetic rubber in Western Europe. The specialties group has shown weakness for several years. It is still outstanding in Group 8, but has not been making the spectacular gains of former years. The increase in 1961 was only about half that of 1960.

    However, the growth of most econo-mies will increase demand for items in this group, which includes many new products.

    A decline in exports of pesticides in the last quarter of 1961 held down a gain in that group and reflects a sharp drop in prices paid by AID.

    Plastics and resins were up in quantity but down in value. This trend was most apparent in polyethyl-ene in which both the total and unit values dropped considerably. For the styrnes and vinyls, the decline was more moderate. Antiknock com-pounds had a substantial increase.

    36 C&EN SEPT. 3, 1962 PART 2

  • UNITED STATES IMPORTS OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS1

    (Quantity in thousands of pounds unless otherwise noted;

    1961

    value in thousands of dollars)

    1960 1951 1947

    Grand total Chemicals and related products

    Coal tar products, total Crude coal tar products, total

    Dead or creosote oil (1000 gal.) Benzene (1000 gal.) Naphthalene

    Intermediate coal tar products Colors, dyes, and stains

    Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations, total

    Menthol, synthetic and natural Industrial chemicals, total

    Acetic acid Arsenic trioxide Ethyl alcohol (1000 gal.) Cobalt oxide Glycerol, crude and refined Iodine, crude Potassium compounds Sodium carbonate, calcined Sodium cyanide

    Pigments, paints, and varnishes Fertilizers and fertilizer materials

    Ammonium sulfate (1000 tons) Ammonium nitrate and mixtures (1000 tons) Calcium cyanamide (1000 tons) Sodium nitrate (1000 tons) Ammonium phosphate (1000 tons) Potash fertilizer materials (1000 tons)

    Potassium chloride, crude (1000 tons) Peat moss, fertilizer grade (1000 tons)

    Explosives, fireworks, and ammunition Soap and toilet preparations

    Allied products Casein and lactarene Lac, crude, seed, button, and stick Shellac, bleached and unbleached Chicle, crude Gums and resins, n.e.s. Drugs, herbs, leaves, roots, etc.

    Pyrethrum or insect flowers Licorice root, crude Opium, crude

    Tung oil Coconut, palm, babassu-nut, and castor oils,

    inedible Vegetable waxes, total

    Carnauba Essential and distilled oils Dyeing and tanning materials

    Quebracho extract Imports for consumption. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce

    Quantity

    33,911 19,355

    101,772 20,385 5,253

    1,474

    7,044 38,966 19,910

    681 18,475 3,017

    14,023

    18,060

    243 249 42

    494 113 438 332 244

    101,827 20,668 6,259 6,311

    88,457

    4,116 43,219

    408 26,894

    337,387 17,634 12,750

    109,662

    Value

    541,386 389,999 76,297 25,816 6,732 5,476

    10,620 18,594 15,159

    35,095 9,100

    125,286 461

    1,422 4,229

    663 2,326 2,852 1,940

    2,377 15,276

    117,761 8,159

    12,617 2,434

    15,862 7,471

    14,296 10,053 12,620 6,009

    14,275 151,387 18,063 4,177 2,086 4,436

    16,779 21,683 1,606 1,723 2,640 6,091

    35,831 10,008 7,783

    20,560 11,673 5,612

    Quantity

    35,905 38,127 41,402 25,744 4,548

    1,080

    4,728 25,649 20,201 1,459

    18,342 1,894

    18,260 180

    17,152

    211 246 44

    355 120 424 327 255

    92,153 26,789 5,935 5,865

    89,708

    459 45,485

    458 23,357

    310,431 19,925 12,267

    98,272

    Value

    510,869 353,162 68,599 23,674 7,254 9,183 3,307

    16,896 11,327

    25,685 6,233

    118,456 313

    1,046 4,362 1,520 3,084 1,425 2,680

    1 2,331

    15,098 108,024

    7,369 12,573 2,579

    11,459 7,465

    12,261 9,181

    13,011 4,536

    12,764 157,707 17,947 5,343 1,975 4,207

    15,721 25,486 1,256 1,774 2,863 4,472

    39,322 11,485 8,679

    19,327 12,422 6,123

    Quantity

    49,499 68,540 73,554 8,722 3,368

    733

    42,499 29,037

    125,044 437

    17,643 852

    29,344 56,781

    137,832

    216 343 68

    726 135 560 493 114

    43,386 25,453 18,119 5,926

    70,215

    6,886 40,947

    763 29,706

    334,195 24,921 16,016

    273,158

    Value

    521,191 300,432 53,791 43,120 8,143

    25,115 5,083 2,574 6,982

    11,823 7,223

    120,045 2,164 1,582

    60,217 604

    6,858 1,320 3,502 1,231 6,428 5,326

    101,923 9,491

    18,757 3,503

    27,025 8,451

    15,041 12,697 3,722 1,677 5,847

    220,759 13,575 8,286 8,051 3,531

    13,976 30,914 2,517 1,371 5,319 9,421

    57,779 20,082 14,874 23,069 32,075 23,173

    Quantity

    34,498 1,055 2,139 2,224

    809

    368

    10,598 27,880 21,501

    816 3,646 2,261 6,458 1,356

    83,432

    114 99

    154 557 105 48 35 46

    20,887 19,062 21,636 13,761 61,857

    8,082 55,922

    386 121,564

    95,113 23,737 11,836

    215,548

    Value

    285,509 105,148 11,514 8,492 5,776

    161 133 592

    2,188

    7,459 2,629

    34,501 583

    1,145 14,840

    813 1,557 2,757

    588 58

    3,329 1,553

    43,453 4,149 5,024 5,242

    15,154 5,203 1,888 1,321 1,450 1,935 4,733

    180,361 6,240 6,883

    10,546 11,839 13,039 29,159 2,399 2,530 3,541

    35,358

    15,762 18,082 13,653 12,962 20,491 15,387

    World-wide consumption of these materials is increasing and the U.S. is a major world supplier.

    Among industrial chemicals, benzene gained in exports to Italy, the Netherlands, Mexico, West Germany, and Brazil. Increased shipments of acetone reflect efforts of U.S. producers to compensate for a weak domestic market. The drop in alcohols resulted from decreased exports of ethylene glycol as new facilities in Europe began to supply demand.

    The large growth in European purchases of consumer products in which petroleum chemical raw materials are used has spurred U.S. exports of those materials.

    Fertilizers had the second largest increase in Group 8, up $9 million, superphosphate accounting for $4 million of the increase. Exports in 1962 are running high, especially of ammonium sulfate. Future world market conditions will be affected by proposed new plants in importing countries, AID

    programs, and purchases from Free World countries by Communist China.

    Sulfur exports were maintained at a fairly good level of 1.6 million long tons. Highly competitive conditions will prevail until world demand and supply are in balance. France, Mexico, Poland, and the U.S.S.R. compete strongly in Europe, and Mexico and Canada in the Far East, India, and Australia. Boric acid and borates dropped in quantity but not in value, less of the crude being exported.

    S E P T . 3, 1962 P A R T 2 C & E N 37

  • CHEMICAL EXPORT OUTLETS-1961

    Chemical Import Sources1961

    Chile .19.4

    United Kingdom 290

    Netherlands 21.0

    West Germany 57.6

    France 29.0

    Switzerland 19.8

    Argentina 26.4 All values in millions of dollars

    Source; Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce

    The value for pharmaceuticals held but the quantity was down. Exports of medicinals to EEC increased, espe-cially to the Netherlands and Belgium-Luxembourg. Several new Japanese facilities for sorbitol used in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may increase com-petition in third markets for U.S. pro-ducers, who export about 207c of pro-duction.

    Imports

    In contrast to 1960, when imports of chemicals and allied products were down slightly, they rose 6% in 1961, and increased very slightly as a per-centage of total imports. The ratio of exports to imports dropped in 1961 to 1:4.4 from 1:4.8 in 1960. Imports of chemicals and related products (Group 8) were up 10%. The prin-

    cipal increases were in pharmaceuti-cals and medicinals, $10 million; ferti-lizers, $9.7 million; and industrial chemicals, $7 million. U.S. imports of naphthalene were almost 2.5 times those of 1960, but increased capacity utilizing petroleum as a material may change the 1962 pattern.

    Latin America had the largest per-centage gain, 36%, principally in me-dicinals and industrial chemicals from Mexico and Brazil and fertilizers from Chile. The two leading single sup-pliers, as in 1960, were Canada and West Germany, Canada making a $2.2 million gain and West Germany $7 million. France remained in third place and the United Kingdom was fourth. The Netherlands took fifth place from Switzerland and Chile went ahead of Japan. Imports from Europe were up 7%, but shipments

    of $129 million from EEC, up ap-proximately 10%, exceeded Europe's over-all gain. West Germany in-creased its sales 14%. EFTA upped its shipments $4 million, from $54 mil-lion, the United Kingdom and Switzer-land being the largest suppliers. More than 40% of imports from Switzer-land were of coal tar dyes. Imports from Asia were up 14%.

    Regional Trade Blocs

    One of the most significant post-war developments has been the emer-gence of powerful regional trading groups. The European Economic Community (EEC) is the world's fastest growing area. It has given a new dimension to international trade and its effects will be global, forcing

    Continued on page 47

    U.S. EXPORTS OF CHEMICALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS, JANUARY-MAY, 1962

    (Thousands of dollars)

    Group

    Toluene Coal tar products and other cyclic chemical products

    (excluding Special Category, Type 2) Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations Chemical specialties Industrial chemicals Pigments, paints, and varnishes Fertilizer and fertilizer materials Dynamite Explosives, fuses, and blasting caps Soap and toilet preparations

    Source: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce

    January

    290

    14,702 21,119 56,340 24,535 7,987

    14,277 282

    1,381 1,669

    February

    1,809

    14,407 22,474 57,543 21,382 8,555

    13,718 160 515

    1,776

    March

    390

    13,146 21,813 68,160 26,558 9,500

    10,160 626 719

    1,943

    April

    1,150

    12,668 25,085 64,914 26,693 8,645

    16,200 63

    653 2,287

    May

    1,790

    15,322 22,761 64,270 26,215 8,120

    13,598 422 698

    2,009

    January-May 1962

    5,429

    70,246 113,252 311,227 125,383 42,807 67,953

    1,553 3,966 9,684

    January-May 1961

    2,636

    70,608 115,572 294,960 125,156 44,153 50,130 1,288 3,311 9,665

    38 C & E N S E P T . 3, 1962 P A R T 2

  • changes in traditional world trade patterns. If the U.K. joins the federation, the area will have a population of more than 250 million and will be an even more important market in which the U.S. has vital interests. Other EFTA nations also want some form of economic association with EEC. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an Atlantic community of 20 countries, including the United States and Canada, is working toward a 50% increase in the combined gross national product of its members.

    The U.S.S.R. is not in a position to launch a large, sustained export drive, but Soviet trade with some areas is growing. The bloc takes advantage in Latin America of exchange shortages and commodity surpluses, and growing trade with India is stimulated by that country's drastic exchange shortage.

    U.S.S.R. trade with Western Europe also is greater, especially with the U.K. The Communist Chinese also have shown greater interest in trade with the West, which may increase if China's relations with the U.S.S.R.

    worsen. Fertilizers have been a principal Communist Chinese import from Japan since trade with that country was resumed in 1960.

    Outlook

    The outlook is most favorable for the newer organics, specialty compounds, and plastics. New products entering the trade will compensate for displaced items and the consumer chemical market will grow rapidly. Canada, Western Europe, and Japan will be the big customers, but the emergence of new African nations and growing industrialization in Latin America and Asia will also greatly increase world demand for chemicals which is already potentially enormous. As the multilateral growth of international trade increases, more low-income countries will benefit and the imbalance between industrial nations and those producing primary commodities will be reduced.

    The combined efforts of Government and private enterprise are being directed toward increasing foreign trade

    which contributes substantially to tne country's well-being. Many firms are expanding into global corporations which operate around the world. A number of small and medium sized firms also have entered foreign trade, but many more should be exporting. U.S. exporters have available to them many specialized marketing and distribution techniques, including the greatly expanded export services of the Department of Commerce, as well as its trade missions, trade centers, and trade fairs, which constantly bring U.S. products to the attention of potential buyers everywhere.

    The U.S. chemical industry may be approaching a $2 billion export goal and an immediate 5 to 10% annual increase in exports. It has great com* petitive strength internationally, de rived from heavy capital investment, efficient, large-scale production, highly skilled labor, technical leadership, and managerial competence. More foreign currencies are freely available, export credit and guarantee services are being strengthened, and efforts to eliminate trade barriers continue.

    PLASTICS AND SYNTHETIC RESIN MATERIALS

    EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

    VALUE OF TRADE (In Millions of Dollars)

    I B H Exports H H Imports

    Source: U. S. Department of Commerce.

    SOAP AND TOILET PREPARATIONS

    INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    280

    210

    140

    1947 '51 '58 '59 '60*61

    Jlillll 1947 '51 '58 '59 '60 '61

    COAL-TAR CHEMICALS

    ill

    175

    140

    105

    70

    35 I

    CRUDE DRUGS AND BOTANICALS

    40

    I 30

    20

    10

    1947 '51 ill '58 'i

    1947 '51 '58 '59 '60 '61

    MEDICINAL & PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS

    250 I I

    200

    ! 150

    !

    100 i I

    50

    1947 '51

    CRUDE DRUGS AND BOTANICALS

    40

    I 30

    20

    10 1ft il il il

    1947 '51 '58 '59 '60 61

    FERTILIZER MATERIALS

    120

    80

    I 1947 '51

    40

    '58 '59 '60 '61

    S E P T . 3, 1962 P A R T 2 C & E N 47

    3 EXPORTS AND IMPORTSEXPORTS KEEP CLIMBINGGeographic AreasCommoditiesImportsRegional Trade BlocsOutlook