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  • 3 EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

    EXPORTS KEEP CLIMBING Government and business are cooperating in a big effort to increase U.S. sales to foreign countries

    VIRGINIA KINNARD, C/iewi/c

  • U.S. EXPORTS OF SELECTED CHEMICALS IN RELATION TO PRODUCTION

    Commodity

    Phenol Colors, dyes, stains, and color lakes Color lakes and toners Medicinal chemicals Penicillin Dihydrostreptomycin Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) Insecticides and fungicides for agricultural use DDT Copper sulfate Plastics and resin material Calcium carbide Borates Sodium carbonate, calcined (soda ash) Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) Synthetic anhydrous ammonia Chlorine Carbon black Paints, varnishes, lacquers, and fillers Ammonium sulfate Phosphate rock Source: International Economic Analysis Division,

    Percentage < 1951

    5.4 11.3 7.7

    14.5 26.4 n.a. 16.1 18.5 n.a. 40.3 7.8 0.9

    n.a. 2.8 8.8 0.3 0.6

    25.8 2.4

    n.a. 15.6

    ureau of Foi

    1956

    7.6 6.8 9.3

    10.0 29.1 35.1 4.7

    28.7 41.6 45.2 8.2 0.4

    44.6 4.2 6.3 1.6 1.1

    23.1 2.1

    36.6 20.4

    Df Production 1959

    5.7 6.7 9.2

    n.a. 23.5 44.3 6.4

    n.a. 48.0 6.6

    n.a. 0.4

    40.9 2.7 5.3 1.9 0.7

    26.1 2.1

    23.3 20.2

    reign Commerce, U.S.

    1960

    6.3 7.5 7.6

    n.a. 27.6 40.1 5.1

    n.a. 60.3 25.6 n.a. n.a. 46.9 2.9 4.9 2.3 0.6

    26.4 1.9

    15.8 24.7 Depart-

    ment of Commerce

    27 % gain in 1960. Shortages of skilled labor throughout the area also limited expansion and demand for chemicals. Exports to the European Economic Community (EEC) countries increased more than 5%, but those to the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) decreased almost 3 % .

    The largest loss among leading purchasers was to the United Kingdom, which dropped to second place because of a tightening-up program after the liberalization measures of 1960 and a slower growth rate. The Netherlands, with $100.6 million, became our leading Western European customer for the first time. Pharmaceuticals led with a 44% increase and coal tar products were up 36%. Italy, taking third place from West Germany, had increases in all product groups except specialties and paints, where declines were small. Coal tar products to Germany were up 32% but industrial chemicals were down 39%.

    The U.S. is by far Germany's leading chemical supplier, but a lull in the German economy, lack of labor for capacity operation, and a cautious inventory policy affected our exports. France in sixth place took $10 million more than in 1960. Industrial chemicals had a whopping 7 1 % increase and coal tar products were up 44%. The boom in French industry began later than that in other Western European countries, and demand is strong from an economy operating at high levels. Switzerland took $4 million more than last year.

    Latin America, formerly our leading regional customer, remained a soft spot. Exports were up in 1960 after a slight drop in 1959, but decreased 4% in 1961. Restrictions on trade with Cuba, exchange difficulties and other economic problems, and heavy competition from West Europe, Japan, and the Soviet bloc held down U.S. exports. Shipments to Mexico, the largest single purchaser, dropped from $114 million in 1960 to $108 million in 1961, the largest loss being in pharmaceuticals. Both Venezuela and Brazil upped their purchases but did not make the 1960 percentage gains. Argentina took $26 million, the largest increase being in chemical specialties.

    Strong demand for U.S. products is held down by lack of exchange. Argentina and Brazil have had such difficulties, and recently imposed restrictions in Chile will limit our exports

    there. Prices for Latin American commodities have sometimes been weak, which gives the Soviet bloc an advantage through barter trade. The whole area will ultimately be a much larger market as industrialization progresses and consumer income rises, but the immediate outlook is uncertain and political conditions will have a strong effect.

    Exports to Asia were up 14% despite a 24% drop to India. As in 1960, smaller countries increased their purchases and gains were more widespread. Fertilizers, insecticides and other items in the specialties group, and pharmaceuticals are prominent items. Japan, our second largest chemical customer, took 2 1 % more than in 1960. Chemical specialties were up $13 million and coal tar products $5 million. Fertilizers and industrial chemicals had smaller gains. Some slowdown in the economy may follow efforts of the Japanese government to dampen the boom, but imports are expected to benefit from liberalization measures already in force and those to become effective in October. Demand for petrochemical raw materials and intermediates continues strong. The Japan Foreign Trade Council predicts U.S. chemical sales of $500 million to that country by 1970.

    The largest loss to India was in chemical specialties, down $9 million. India has adopted stringent measures to conserve its very low ex

    change reserves and the immediate outlook for increased exports is not favorable. However, opportunities for licensing arrangements and other participation in the Indian chemical industry are good. Indian trade with the Soviet bloc, which allows payment in rupees, is growing. Indonesia took $7 million more and Korea an additional $6.7 million. Shipments to the Philippines and Hong Kong were down slightly.

    Trade with Africa was up 11% despite a 7.6% decrease in exports to the Union of South Africa. Exports to Egypt almost doubled, mainly because of a steep rise in pesticides. The African countries are large potential markets, but no sudden gains can be expected. Trade has been restricted by foreign exchange difficulties, low per capita income, and lack of industrial development and political stability. However, rising exports to many smaller countries in the area indicate economic growth. New markets also are emerging in the Middle East, a long neglected area.

    Commodities

    Coal tar products had the largest percentage increase in the chemical group, 12.8%. Cresols rose sharply-more than one third of domestic production was shipped abroad in 1961 to satisfy high demand, especially from Western Europe, Latin America, and Japan. Greater demand for rubber

    S E P T . 3, 1962 P A R T 2 C & E N 35

  • UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS (Quantity in thousands of pounds unless otherwise noted; value in thousands of dollars)

    1961 1960 1951 1947

    Grand total Chemicals and related products

    Coal tar products Coal tar acids Other coal tar intermediates Rubber compounding agents Colors, dyes, and stains Medicinal and pharmaceutical

    preparations, total Vitamins and viosterols Insulin and other glandular

    products, excluding enzymes Sulfonamide drugs Antibiotics

    Chemical specialties, total Insecticides and fungicides Plastics and resin materials Organic surface-active agents Antiknock compounds, nonpet.

    Industrial chemicals, total Acids and anhydrides Alcohols Acetone Synthetic collecting agents Cellulose acetate, not plasticized Boric acid and borates, crude and

    refined Sodium compounds, total Carbonate Bicarbonate Hydroxide Gases, compressed, liquefied, and

    solidified Pigments, paints, and varnishes

    Iron oxide pigments Zinc oxide Lithopone Carbon black Titanium dioxide and pigments Nitrocellulose and other cellulose

    lacquers (1000 gal.) Ready-mixed paints, stains, and

    enamels (1000 gal.) Fertilizer materials, total (1000 tons)

    Ammonium sulfate (1000 tons) Other nitrogenous materials

    (1000 tons) Phosphate rock (1000 tons) Superphosphate (1000 tons) Fertilizer mixtures, prepared

    (1000 tons) Explosives, fuses, blasting caps Soap and toilet preparations

    Allied products from other groups Naval stores, gums, resins

    Rosin, gum and wood Turpentine (1000 gal.)

    Crude drugs, herbs, leaves, roots Linseed oil Essential oils Sulfur, crude and refined (1000 LT.)

    Source: U.S. Department of Commerce

    Quantity

    74,010 407,661 23,523 12,993

    879,221 219,230 88,741

    74,015

    15,176 27,079 6,894

    538,543 1,053,071

    264,218 21,992

    454,885

    6,426 4,366 1,217

    522,331 62,207

    825

    4,146

    144

    231 4,617

    525

    86

    243,896 3,811

    19,462 7,297 1,596

    Value

    1,835,036 1,725,339

    185,489 10,949 66,160 15,421 24,595

    275,253 31,740

    30,819 7,151

    84,002 696,428 106,940 292,878 37,083 30,499

    299,038 11,370 50,704 1,014 7,986 2,565

    23,212 34,423 4,045

    595 11,952

    3,939 106,127

    855 671 88

    48,166 9,216

    3,595

    16,014 127,490

    5,053

    18,810 36,910 23,695

    6,479 11,971 23,543

    109,697 53,123 31,101 1,474 3,806 2,509

    13,635 36,624

    Quantity

    75,682 426,606 20,067 13,969

    825,167 204,477 65,693

    88,364

    10,687 25,830 6,676

    601,212 1,125,876

    309,371 21,480

    475,021

    7,724 4,273

    380 543,032 67,311

    920

    4,530

    237

    279 4,756

    467

    71

    338,287 4,106

    55,931 6,979 1,785

    Value

    1,814,112 1,679,921

    166,663 12,403 71,128 12,781 22,863

    274,717 31,327

    30,956 6,824

    88,370 662,576 105,892 297,485 36,563 22,730

    310,900 17,338 65,082

    826 7,791 2,731

    25,576 36,885 5,143

    619 14,311

    3,704 108,037

    1,113 659 35

    49,601 10,001

    3,809

    16,494 118,995

    6,701

    18,949 37,543 19,882

    5,383 13,197 24,836

    134,191 68,034 41,532 1,888 4,549 5,871

    13,475 42,262

    Quantity

    32,518 60,291 13