2012 Lecture Series - "State and Sangha: Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History"

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<ul><li><p>Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History</p><p>2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 2</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>Outline</p><p> Introduction Buddhism Comes to Korean Peninsula Buddhist Influence on the Silla Dynasty Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo Dynasty Suppression Under Choson Japanese Colonial Rule Buddhism and Westernization </p><p>2</p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>Religion and governance are intertwined</p><p>Buddhism one of most influential religions</p><p>State policies have both encouraged and restricted Buddhism</p><p>Buddhism has influenced the state both culturally and politically</p><p>3</p></li><li><p>Introduction into Korea</p><p>Shamanism </p><p>Dual Leadership</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>Introduction into Korea</p><p>Entered via China in 372 CE </p><p>Three Kingdoms period</p><p> Goguryeo</p><p> Bakeje</p><p> SillaMulti-Tribal</p><p>No National Identity</p><p>5</p></li><li><p>Introduction into Korea</p><p>Monk Shundao ()</p><p>Texts/Statues</p><p>Rudimentary Buddhism</p><p>Easy to Adopt/Assimilate</p><p>6</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>Silla Dynasty 57 BCE - 935 CE</p><p>Commoners attracted first</p><p>Resistance among aristocrats</p><p>527 CE</p><p>King Pophung and The Miracle of Ichadon</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>King Pophungs 4 Motivations</p><p> Personal Faith</p><p> Edification of the People</p><p> Protection of the State</p><p> Absorption of Buddhism</p><p>8</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>King Chinhung</p><p>24th Ruler </p><p>540 - 576 CE</p><p>Later Becomes Monk</p><p>Growth of Buddhism Encouraged</p><p>Hwarang Flower Boy System</p><p>9</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>Hwarang Flower Boy System</p><p>- Elite Male Youth</p><p>- Steeped in Buddhism</p><p>- Spiritual/Physical Training</p><p>- 5 Secular Precepts</p><p>- Major role in unification</p><p>Ideologically, belief and hope that the youth were incarnations </p><p>of Maitreya </p><p>10</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>Cakravartin Ideal</p><p>- Universal Ruler</p><p>- Emperor Ashoka as model</p><p>- Secular counterpart to Buddha</p><p>- Doctrine of Karma</p><p>- Power is legitimizedRuler or king administers </p><p>benevolently and ethically, in Silla context, according to Buddhist </p><p>ideology</p><p>11</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on SillaQueen Seondeok</p><p>27th Ruler of Silla</p><p>632 - 647 CE</p><p>Promulgated Buddhism</p><p>12</p></li><li><p>Hoguk Pulgyo</p><p>Promote Buddhism Protect the State</p><p>Temple Construction</p><p>Foreign Monks Invited</p><p>Religious/Political Appointments</p><p>Royalty Adopt Buddhist Names</p><p>Unity of Buddhism and State</p><p>Continuation of Dual Leadership</p><p>13</p></li><li><p>Buddhist Influence on Silla</p><p>Inadequacy of Shamanism</p><p>Buddhism helped justify and legitimize power</p><p>Buddhist doctrine used to centralize power, expand territorially, and unify land</p><p>Accommodated indigenous deities by reinterpretation of existing legends</p><p>Observed outside development</p><p>14</p></li><li><p>Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo</p><p>918 - 1392 CE</p><p>Buddhism ascends to highest prominence and state patronage</p><p>Buddhism used as political tool</p><p>Official state ideology and religion</p><p>Tripitaka Koreana, Haein-sa 1251</p><p>15</p></li><li><p>Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo</p><p>Taejo Wanggon</p><p>Ruled 918 - 943 CE</p><p>10 Rules of Exhortation</p><p>Series of edicts that laid foundation for strong relationship with Buddhism</p><p>First dictate was to protect Buddhism by building monasteries, sponsoring festivals, and dispatching abbots</p><p>16</p></li><li><p>Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo</p><p>Samguk Yusa</p><p>13th Century</p><p>Historiographic collection</p><p>Complied by monk Il Yeon </p><p>Inspiration for Koyro Rulers</p><p>Buddhist Folktales pointed to direct correlation between Buddhism and the welfare of the state</p><p>17</p></li><li><p>Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo</p><p>Two Wheels of Dharma</p><p>Hoguk Pulgyo further justified</p><p>King is incorporated into a Buddhist world vision and given the role of promotor of the Dharma</p><p>One wheel wielded by King, other by the Buddha</p><p>Two wheels operate together</p><p>Not separate but interdependent</p><p>18</p></li><li><p>Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo</p><p>Monk Examination System</p><p>Bureaucratic Department</p><p>Parallel to Civil Servants</p><p>Serve government through spiritual advice, ceremonies, prayers for nation</p><p>Tax Exemption</p><p>Gradual transformation into elite aristocratic organization</p><p>19</p></li><li><p>Suppression under Choson</p><p>Social/Economic Changes</p><p>Mongol Empire</p><p>Koyro Disintegrates</p><p>King Taejo</p><p>1392 - 1910 CE</p><p>Ideology Shift</p><p>20</p></li><li><p>Suppression under Choson</p><p>Neo-Confucianism</p><p>Critical of Buddhism on a number of levels</p><p>Buddhist teachings not appropriate for state governance</p><p>Buddhism is anti-productive</p><p>Refuge for impoverished</p><p>21</p></li><li><p>Suppression under Choson</p><p>State implements new policies</p><p>Monk License System</p><p>Confiscates Buddhist Property</p><p>Temple Conversion</p><p>Exile from Cities</p><p>Buddhism loses social respect</p><p>Hoguk Pulgyo diminishes</p><p>22</p></li><li><p>Japanese Colonial Rule</p><p>1910 - 1945 </p><p>Buddhism vulnerable from Choson suppression</p><p>Treaty of Amity 1876</p><p>Japanese subordinate Buddhism</p><p>City Ban is repealed</p><p>Increased Secularization</p><p>1926 - Married Abbots</p><p>23</p></li><li><p>Japanese Colonial Rule</p><p>Nationalist Movement</p><p>Anti-Religious Movement</p><p>Buddhism is Japanese Tool for exploitation</p><p>Further fueled by those sympathetic to Japanese</p><p>24</p></li><li><p>Buddhism and Westernization</p><p>Post World War II</p><p>Republic of Korea</p><p>Sungman Lee</p><p>Purification Reforms</p><p>1954 - Japanized Buddhists</p><p>Marginalized non-celibate monks</p><p>1961 - Law for the Control of Buddhist Properties</p><p>Police occupy temples</p><p>25</p></li><li><p>Buddhism and Westernization</p><p>1970s </p><p>Buddhism is Backwards</p><p>Monks drafted into Army</p><p>Accused of violating Precepts</p><p>Forced Allegiance to Government</p><p>Dissidents and Protestors Grow</p><p>26</p></li><li><p>Buddhism and Westernization</p><p>1980s - 1990s</p><p>Purged of undesirable elements</p><p>Temple Raiding</p><p>Brutalized Monks</p><p>Vandalization</p><p>Temple Burnings</p><p>27</p></li><li><p>Buddhism and Westernization</p><p>Lee Myung Bak</p><p>President Since 2008</p><p>Devout Christian (Presbyterian)</p><p>12:1</p><p>Accused of blind eye</p><p>TempleStay Budget Cuts</p><p>Jogye Order Severs Communication</p><p>Pray for Collapse</p><p>28</p></li><li><p>Learn More!</p><p>29</p></li><li><p>Next Lecture...Returning to Buddha:</p><p>History of Buddhism and Abortion in Japan</p><p>August 201230</p></li></ul>

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