2012 lecture series - "state and sangha: buddhist culture and political thought in korean history"

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  • Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History

    2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 2

    1

  • Outline

    Introduction Buddhism Comes to Korean Peninsula Buddhist Influence on the Silla Dynasty Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo Dynasty Suppression Under Choson Japanese Colonial Rule Buddhism and Westernization

    2

  • Introduction

    Religion and governance are intertwined

    Buddhism one of most influential religions

    State policies have both encouraged and restricted Buddhism

    Buddhism has influenced the state both culturally and politically

    3

  • Introduction into Korea

    Shamanism

    Dual Leadership

    4

  • Introduction into Korea

    Entered via China in 372 CE

    Three Kingdoms period

    Goguryeo

    Bakeje

    SillaMulti-Tribal

    No National Identity

    5

  • Introduction into Korea

    Monk Shundao ()

    Texts/Statues

    Rudimentary Buddhism

    Easy to Adopt/Assimilate

    6

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    Silla Dynasty 57 BCE - 935 CE

    Commoners attracted first

    Resistance among aristocrats

    527 CE

    King Pophung and The Miracle of Ichadon

    7

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    King Pophungs 4 Motivations

    Personal Faith

    Edification of the People

    Protection of the State

    Absorption of Buddhism

    8

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    King Chinhung

    24th Ruler

    540 - 576 CE

    Later Becomes Monk

    Growth of Buddhism Encouraged

    Hwarang Flower Boy System

    9

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    Hwarang Flower Boy System

    - Elite Male Youth

    - Steeped in Buddhism

    - Spiritual/Physical Training

    - 5 Secular Precepts

    - Major role in unification

    Ideologically, belief and hope that the youth were incarnations

    of Maitreya

    10

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    Cakravartin Ideal

    - Universal Ruler

    - Emperor Ashoka as model

    - Secular counterpart to Buddha

    - Doctrine of Karma

    - Power is legitimizedRuler or king administers

    benevolently and ethically, in Silla context, according to Buddhist

    ideology

    11

  • Buddhist Influence on SillaQueen Seondeok

    27th Ruler of Silla

    632 - 647 CE

    Promulgated Buddhism

    12

  • Hoguk Pulgyo

    Promote Buddhism Protect the State

    Temple Construction

    Foreign Monks Invited

    Religious/Political Appointments

    Royalty Adopt Buddhist Names

    Unity of Buddhism and State

    Continuation of Dual Leadership

    13

  • Buddhist Influence on Silla

    Inadequacy of Shamanism

    Buddhism helped justify and legitimize power

    Buddhist doctrine used to centralize power, expand territorially, and unify land

    Accommodated indigenous deities by reinterpretation of existing legends

    Observed outside development

    14

  • Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo

    918 - 1392 CE

    Buddhism ascends to highest prominence and state patronage

    Buddhism used as political tool

    Official state ideology and religion

    Tripitaka Koreana, Haein-sa 1251

    15

  • Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo

    Taejo Wanggon

    Ruled 918 - 943 CE

    10 Rules of Exhortation

    Series of edicts that laid foundation for strong relationship with Buddhism

    First dictate was to protect Buddhism by building monasteries, sponsoring festivals, and dispatching abbots

    16

  • Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo

    Samguk Yusa

    13th Century

    Historiographic collection

    Complied by monk Il Yeon

    Inspiration for Koyro Rulers

    Buddhist Folktales pointed to direct correlation between Buddhism and the welfare of the state

    17

  • Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo

    Two Wheels of Dharma

    Hoguk Pulgyo further justified

    King is incorporated into a Buddhist world vision and given the role of promotor of the Dharma

    One wheel wielded by King, other by the Buddha

    Two wheels operate together

    Not separate but interdependent

    18

  • Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo

    Monk Examination System

    Bureaucratic Department

    Parallel to Civil Servants

    Serve government through spiritual advice, ceremonies, prayers for nation

    Tax Exemption

    Gradual transformation into elite aristocratic organization

    19

  • Suppression under Choson

    Social/Economic Changes

    Mongol Empire

    Koyro Disintegrates

    King Taejo

    1392 - 1910 CE

    Ideology Shift

    20

  • Suppression under Choson

    Neo-Confucianism

    Critical of Buddhism on a number of levels

    Buddhist teachings not appropriate for state governance

    Buddhism is anti-productive

    Refuge for impoverished

    21

  • Suppression under Choson

    State implements new policies

    Monk License System

    Confiscates Buddhist Property

    Temple Conversion

    Exile from Cities

    Buddhism loses social respect

    Hoguk Pulgyo diminishes

    22

  • Japanese Colonial Rule

    1910 - 1945

    Buddhism vulnerable from Choson suppression

    Treaty of Amity 1876

    Japanese subordinate Buddhism

    City Ban is repealed

    Increased Secularization

    1926 - Married Abbots

    23

  • Japanese Colonial Rule

    Nationalist Movement

    Anti-Religious Movement

    Buddhism is Japanese Tool for exploitation

    Further fueled by those sympathetic to Japanese

    24

  • Buddhism and Westernization

    Post World War II

    Republic of Korea

    Sungman Lee

    Purification Reforms

    1954 - Japanized Buddhists

    Marginalized non-celibate monks

    1961 - Law for the Control of Buddhist Properties

    Police occupy temples

    25

  • Buddhism and Westernization

    1970s

    Buddhism is Backwards

    Monks drafted into Army

    Accused of violating Precepts

    Forced Allegiance to Government

    Dissidents and Protestors Grow

    26

  • Buddhism and Westernization

    1980s - 1990s

    Purged of undesirable elements

    Temple Raiding

    Brutalized Monks

    Vandalization

    Temple Burnings

    27

  • Buddhism and Westernization

    Lee Myung Bak

    President Since 2008

    Devout Christian (Presbyterian)

    12:1

    Accused of blind eye

    TempleStay Budget Cuts

    Jogye Order Severs Communication

    Pray for Collapse

    28

  • Learn More!

    29

  • Next Lecture...Returning to Buddha:

    History of Buddhism and Abortion in Japan

    August 201230

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