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  • 1.Pope in Rome head of the church

    -Cardinals reported to Pope-Archbishops governed bishops spread all over Europe-Priests lived in villages and towns

  • 2. wandering ministries: two orders of monks (Franciscans, known for vows of poverty, & Dominicans, more scholarly)

    3.monasteries: housed monks who devoted their lives to study, worship, & hard work convents: for nuns

    4.Monasteries became centers of scholarship, education, & libraries

  • 1.Church reform: some viewed Church as becoming corrupt (landholding, simony, & religious appointments)

    2.Pope Gregory VII tried to take power from monarchs to appoint bishops (LAY INVESTITURE)

    3.Church made its own courts: Ecclesiastical Courts

    4.Concordat of Worms (1122): stated that bishops controlled by both Church (ring & staff) & by Emperor (lance)

  • 1.Battle of Hastings (1066): William the Conqueror invades the Saxons from Normandy

    2.Henry II:

    -tried to strengthen power of king-created trial by juries-had archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Becket) killed

  • What factors contributed to conflict between the Papacy & the monarchs of Western Europe?

  • 1.Missionaries brought Christianity to early Russia (Cyril & Methodius)

    - Cyrillic alphabet translated Bible into native Slavic languages

    2. Trade brought Byzantine ideas



  • 1.Descendants of Vikings invade Baltic region and city of Kiev

    2.Kiev major trade route

  • 3. Vladimir converted the Rus to Christianity (fewest restrictions on food & drinking)

    4.Married Byzantine Emperors daughter

    5.Copied Byzantium (religion, art, govt)VLADIMIR

  • boyars: landholding aristocrats

  • 1.Yaroslav the Wise codified Russian law


    2.Byzantium falls

    3.Invasion from the Mongols (TATARS)

  • The Mongols Invade Russia

  • 1. Controlled Russia for 200 years

    2. Conquered Rus in winter!


  • moldboard (plow)horse collarthree-field system

  • Population growth

    Italian port cities

    Flanders in N. Europe

  • Medieval Trade

  • A.Political causes:

    1. European expansionism (conversion of Vikings & Magyars (Huns) to Christianity)

    2. European Christians take control from Ummayads of Spain & Sicily

    3. Byzantines lose to Seljuk Turks at Battle of Manzikert (1071)

  • Causes:

    1.to return the Holy Lands to Christian control

    2.to unite European Christians

    3.to control kings & nobles

    4.heal the Great Schism

  • Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade at Clermont 1095

  • If any one through devotion alone, and not for the sake of honor or gain, goes to Jerusalem to free the church of God, the journey itself shall take the place of all penance.

  • religious holy war for salvation against the infidels

    have their taxes canceledavoid jail by fightingplunder for personal gain

    glory &d potential for land

    merchants saw a chance for trade expansion

  • Christian Crusades

  • stimulated trade (new towns & new products)

    feudalism weakened (serfs gained freedom but power of kings increased)

    improved status of women

    improved prestige of church

    encouraged learning

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