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    Somal and Galla Land; Embodying Information Collected by the Rev. Thomas WakefieldAuthor(s): E. G. Ravenstein and Thomas WakefieldSource: Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography,New Monthly Series, Vol. 6, No. 5 (May, 1884), pp. 255-273Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the

    Institute of British Geographers)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1800372

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    25555OtIAL AND GALLA LAND.OtIAL AND GALLA LAND.it xvas beainning to disappeal, and slalrery was commencing. Two years after-wards the region was desolate. The Shooli tribe had for a lollg time defied theEgyptian Government, and had in fact now and a.gainmade raids on Khartumitself. Although the credit had been g;iven to Schweinfurth for discovering theWelle, Consul Petllerick made known its existence many years before. TheBahr-el-Ghasalregion was the commencementof the rising chalk countrysand alittle further outh mountainsoroppedup here and there belonging to the graniteand other formations. A line drawn strait,ht across in that region would be thebarrierwhich divides the Congo rom the Nile. Therefore he Welle must flow tothe north.The PRESIDENT,n conclusion, aid that what l:ladbeen read was a sufficientreply to those who believed there was no furtherwork to be done by geographicalexplorers. In the vast region betsveen he Niam Niam country alld the Congoandthe sources of the Benne on the one side, and in the land of the Gallas and theSomalis,wide tracts of unknown cotlntry still remained. The reading of LuptonBey's letters, which conveyedvividly the impressionof the moment, and were notthe less interesting ecause they were rlot arranged nto a formal paper,called tomind the fact that they were written within a few days of the disasterwhich over-took Hicks and his artny. The knowledgeof that circumstancemust make everyone look forwardwith ansious interest for the next news of such a gallant andenterprising traveller, who, if his life be spared, will undoubtedly make knownregionswhich at present were the objects of eagercuriosity. The country throughwhich the Aruwimi and the AVelle low is the very part which Mr. H. H. Johnstonhad proposed o visit beforehe decidedto go to Mount Kilimanjaro,his intentionhavi:n been to leclve he Congoat its northernbend and make his way across o thewaters of the Wile. In so doing he would probablynave settled the question of thedirectionof the Welle. He had, however,been naturally deterredby the disturbedstate of the Soudan, which made that portion of it inaccessible at present toEtlropcan rasellers.

    fiSoenalnd GallaLand; embodyzngnfortion collectedytheRezv. hornasWakefield.$By E. GE.&y;sNSTE.

    (Read at the Evening Meeting,March10th, 1884.)SINCE he labours of Livingstone alld Stanle;y,and of their successors,have revealed to us the broad outlines of the geography of Southern:13quatorialAfrica, there exists no region in that continent equal ine:xtent or richer in promlse of reward to a bold explorer than the coun-tries of the Somal and Galla- Stretching away for 1200 miles fromCape Guardafui into ths basin of the Upper Nile, we are acquainted asyet with hardly more than its fringe, es:cept immediately to the sout:hofAbyssi:nia,where a broad wedge has been driven right into its centre.Our maps of the greater part of this region are still based upon frag-

    * Vzde he R.GE.S.Map of Eastern EquatorialAfrica, by Rave:ustein,heets 3-6and 9-1L

    it xvas beainning to disappeal, and slalrery was commencing. Two years after-wards the region was desolate. The Shooli tribe had for a lollg time defied theEgyptian Government, and had in fact now and a.gainmade raids on Khartumitself. Although the credit had been g;iven to Schweinfurth for discovering theWelle, Consul Petllerick made known its existence many years before. TheBahr-el-Ghasalregion was the commencementof the rising chalk countrysand alittle further outh mountainsoroppedup here and there belonging to the graniteand other formations. A line drawn strait,ht across in that region would be thebarrierwhich divides the Congo rom the Nile. Therefore he Welle must flow tothe north.The PRESIDENT,n conclusion, aid that what l:ladbeen read was a sufficientreply to those who believed there was no furtherwork to be done by geographicalexplorers. In the vast region betsveen he Niam Niam country alld the Congoandthe sources of the Benne on the one side, and in the land of the Gallas and theSomalis,wide tracts of unknown cotlntry still remained. The reading of LuptonBey's letters, which conveyedvividly the impressionof the moment, and were notthe less interesting ecause they were rlot arranged nto a formal paper,called tomind the fact that they were written within a few days of the disasterwhich over-took Hicks and his artny. The knowledgeof that circumstancemust make everyone look forwardwith ansious interest for the next news of such a gallant andenterprising traveller, who, if his life be spared, will undoubtedly make knownregionswhich at present were the objects of eagercuriosity. The country throughwhich the Aruwimi and the AVelle low is the very part which Mr. H. H. Johnstonhad proposed o visit beforehe decidedto go to Mount Kilimanjaro,his intentionhavi:n been to leclve he Congoat its northernbend and make his way across o thewaters of the Wile. In so doing he would probablynave settled the question of thedirectionof the Welle. He had, however,been naturally deterredby the disturbedstate of the Soudan, which made that portion of it inaccessible at present toEtlropcan rasellers.

    fiSoenalnd GallaLand; embodyzngnfortion collectedytheRezv. hornasWakefield.$By E. GE.&y;sNSTE.

    (Read at the Evening Meeting,March10th, 1884.)SINCE he labours of Livingstone alld Stanle;y,and of their successors,have revealed to us the broad outlines of the geography of Southern:13quatorialAfrica, there exists no region in that continent equal ine:xtent or richer in promlse of reward to a bold explorer than the coun-tries of the Somal and Galla- Stretching away for 1200 miles fromCape Guardafui into ths basin of the Upper Nile, we are acquainted asyet with hardly more than its fringe, es:cept immediately to the sout:hofAbyssi:nia,where a broad wedge has been driven right into its centre.Our maps of the greater part of this region are still based upon frag-

    * Vzde he R.GE.S.Map of Eastern EquatorialAfrica, by Rave:ustein,heets 3-6and 9-1L

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    256 SOMALAND GALLALAND.melltarynative inforluation, nd he mrould e a bold manwho assertedthat he possesseda definite knowledgeof even its most elementaryhydrographicaleatures.Vainly do we look to the ancients or to tlle Arabs for definiteinformation especting he interiorof these erritories, nd althoughFraMauro, n his map of the world (1457)has given us a pictureof Abys-sinia, surprisingly correct as to certain details, thollgh fearfullyexaggerativewith respect o distallces, nd even indicates riverXibe,which in its lower courseassumes he nameof Galla,and*finally indsits way into an arnl of the Indian Ocean,ag,ainstwhich is written theword" Diab," t is only since the Portut,uese,n their victoriouscareerround Africa, extellded their researches nland into the countly ofPrester John, that our geographicalknowledge assumes a definiteshape. As early as 152S, Jorge d'Abreu,one of the gentlemenattached to the mission of Don Rodrit,ode Lilua, acconlpanied nAbyssinian lmy into Adea. He is the first Europeanmhostoodon theshoreof Lake Zuway,and up to within the last few years,the only one.Subsequently1613) Antonio Fernandez ainly tried to make his waythrough the Galla coulltries to the Indian Ocean,and although hefailed in his main object,he yet visited Kalnbate nd Alaba,countrieswhich no Europeanhas beheld since. A fervyears after him, in 1624,Ewatherobowalked romPata to the Inouthof tlle Jub in searchof aninlanclroute to Abyssinia. He too failed; but the namesof the twelvetribes, throughwhose er