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  • Slide 1 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    SOIL COMPACTION BASICS

    Courtesy of http://www.extension.umn.edu

    Soil Compaction:Densification of soil by

    the removal of air.

    Figure courtesy of Soil Compaction: A Basic Handbook by MultiQuip.

  • Slide 2 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    WHY COMPACT SOILS?

    Figure courtesy of Soil Compaction: A Basic Handbook by MultiQuip.

  • Slide 3 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Volume (V)Weight (W)

    Conceptual(Figure 4.1. Das FGE (2005))

    MOIST UNIT WEIGHT () VS.MOISTURE CONTENT (w)

    Silty Clay (LL=37, PI =14) Example(from Johnson and Sallberg 1960, taken

    from TRB State of the Art Report 8, 1990)

  • Slide 4 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    LABORATORY COMPACTION TESTS (i.e. PROCTORS)

    Typical Proctor Test Equipment(Figure courtesy of test-llc.com)

    6 inchMold

    4 inch Mold

    Ejector

    Modified Hammer

    Standard Hammer

    Soil Plug

    Soil Plug

    Scale

  • Slide 5 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    TestASTM/

    AASHTO

    HammerWeight

    (lb)

    Hammer Drop(in)

    Compaction Effort

    (kip-ft/ft3)Standard(SCDOT)

    D698T-99

    5.5 12 12.4

    ModifiedD1557T-180

    10 18 56

    LABORATORY COMPACTIONTEST SUMMARY

  • Slide 6 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    TestSTANDARD

    ASTM D698/AASHTO T-99MODIFIED

    ASTM D1557/AASHTO T-180

    Method A B C A B C

    Material 20%

    Retained by #4 Sieve

    >20% Retained on

    #4 20%

    Retained by 3/8 in Sieve

    >20% Retained on

    3/8 in< 30%

    Retained by 3/4 in Sieve

    20% Retained by

    #4 Sieve

    >20% Retained on

    #4 20%

    Retained by 3/8 in Sieve

    >20% Retained on

    3/8 in< 30%

    Retained by 3/4 in Sieve

    Use Soil Passing Sieve #4 3/8 in in #4 3/8 in in

    Mold Dia. (in) 4 4 6 4 4 6

    No. of Layers 3 3 3 5 5 5

    No. Blows/Layer 25 25 56 25 25 56

    LABORATORY COMPACTION TEST SUMMARY

  • Slide 7 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Figure courtesy of Soil Compaction: A Basic Handbook by MultiQuip.

    LABORATORY COMPACTIONTEST SUMMARY

  • Slide 8 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Automated ProctorEquipment

    (Figure courtesy of Humboldt)

    Manual Proctor Test(What you WILL be doing)

    (Figure courtesy of westest.net)

    LABORATORY COMPACTION TESTS (i.e. PROCTORS)

  • Slide 9 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    w d

    1

    From Soil Composition

    notes:

    Optimum Moisture Content OMC = 11.5%

    Maximum DryDensity

    MDD or d,max = 112.2 pcf

    SP-SM% Fines = 6%

    Zero Air Voids(ZAV) LineGs = 2.6

  • Slide 10 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    s

    w

    s

    wswszav

    GwwG

    Ge

    G 111

    Dry Unit Weight (d) (i.e. no water):

    zav = Zero Air Void Unit Weight:

    w

    Volume (V))Solids (WWeight of sd

    1

    ZERO AIR VOIDS LINE

  • Slide 11 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    1. Soil TypeGrain Size DistributionShape of Soil GrainsSpecific Gravity of Soil Solids

    2. Effect of Compaction EffortMore Energy Greater Compaction

    FACTORS AFFECTING SOILCOMPACTION

  • Slide 12 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Lee and Suedkamp (1972)

    A. Single Peak(Most Soils)

    B. 1 PeakCohesive Soils LL70after Figure 4.5. Das FGE (2005)

    Moisture Content w

    Dry

    Uni

    t Wei

    ght

    d

    ABC

    D

    TYPES OFCOMPACTION CURVES

  • Slide 13 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Figure 4.6. Das FGE (2005).

    In general:

    Compaction Energy = d,max

    Compaction Energy = OMC

    EFFECT OFCOMPACTION ENERGY

  • Slide 14 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    EFFECT OF COMPACTION ONCOHESIVE SOILS

    Figure 4.22. Das FGE (2005).

    OMC

    Wet SideDry Side

    Dry Side ParticleStructureFlocculent

    Wet Side Particle

    StructureDispersed

  • Slide 15 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Figure 4.23. Das FGE (2005).

    Hydraulic Conductivity (k):Measure of how water flows through soils

    In General:

    Increasing w = Decreasing kUntil ~ OMC, then increasing whas no significant affect on k

    EFFECT OFCOMPACTION ONCOHESIVE SOILS

  • Slide 16 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Figure 4.24. Das FGE (2005).

    Unconfined Compression Strength (qu) :Measure of soil strength

    In General:

    Increasing w = Decreasing quRelated to soil structure:Dry side FlocculentWet Side Dispersed

    EFFECT OFCOMPACTION ONCOHESIVE SOILS

  • Slide 17 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    FIELD COMPACTION EQUIPMENT4 Common Types:

    1. Smooth Drum Roller2. Pneumatic Rubber Tired Roller3. Sheepsfoot Roller (Tamping Foot)4. Vibratory Roller (can be 1-3) Smooth Drum

    Pneumatic Rubber Tired

    Sheepsfoot Vibratory Drum

  • Slide 18 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Photographs courtesy of:

    myconstructionphotos.smugmug.com

    http://cee.engr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/boulanger/

    Holtz and Kovacs (1981)

    FIELD COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

  • Slide 19 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    FineGrained

    SoilsCourseGrained

    Soils

    CourseGrained

    Soils

    FIELD COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

  • Slide 20 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    from Holtz and Kovacs (1981)

    FIELD COMPACTION EQUIPMENT

  • Slide 21 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Relative Compaction (R or C.R.):

    5 Common Field Test Methods:1. Sand Cone (ASTM D1556)2. Rubber Balloon Method (D2167)3. Nuclear Density (ASTM D2922)4. Time Domain Reflectometry (D6780)5. Shelby Tube (not commonly used)

    100(%)max,

    )( d

    fieldd R

    FIELD COMPACTION TESTING

  • Slide 22 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    METHOD

    SAND CONE(ASTM D1556)

    BALLOON(ASTM D2167)

    NUCLEAR(ASTM D2922 &ASTM D3017)

    TDR(ASTM D6780)

    Advantages Large Sample Accurate

    Large Sample Direct Reading

    Obtained Open graded

    material

    Fast Easy to re-perform More Tests

    Fast Easy to re-perform More Tests

    Disadvantages Time consuming Large area

    required

    Slow Balloon breakage Awkward

    No sample Radiation Moisture suspect

    Under research

    Errors Void under plate Sand bulking Sand compacted Soil pumping

    Surface not level Soil pumping Void under plate

    Miscalibration Rocks in path Surface prep req. Backscatter

    Under Research

    after Soil Compaction: A Basic Handbook by MultiQuip.Photographs courtesy of Durham Geo/Slope Indicator and myconstructionphotos.smugmug.com.

    FIELD COMPACTION TESTING

  • Slide 23 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Sand Cone Method(D1556-07)

    F 13

    Balloon Method(D2167-08)

    Figures courtesy of Soil Compaction: A Basic Handbook by MultiQuip and TRB State of the Art Report 8, 1990.

    Nuclear Method(D2922-05 & D3017-05)

    FIELD COMPACTION TESTING

  • Slide 24 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    Reference City of LynchburgSCDOT

    QCSCDOT

    QA

    USBR Earth

    Manual

    NAVFAC DM7.02 FM 5-410

    Year 2004 1996 1996 1998 1986 1997

    Roads 1 per liftper 300 LF1 per lift

    per 500 LF1 per lift

    per 2500 LF1 per lift

    per 250 LF

    Buildings or Structures

    1 per liftper 5000 SF

    Airfields 1 per liftper 250 LF

    EmbankmentMass Earthwork

    1 per liftper 500 LF

    1 per liftper 2500 LF 2000 CY 500 CY

    Canal/Reservoir Linings 1000 CY 500-1,000 CY

    Trenches &Around Structures

    1 per liftper 300 LF 200 CY 200-300 CY

    1 per liftper 50 LF

    Parking Areas 1 per liftper 10000 SF1 per lift

    per 250 SY

    Misc.1 per areas of

    doubtful compaction

    1 per areas of doubtful

    compaction

    FIELD COMPACTION: TEST FREQUENCY

  • Slide 25 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    State DOTs Maximum LiftHeightMaryland, Massachusetts, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio,

    Oklahoma Max. 0.15 m (6 in) lift before compaction

    Connecticut, Kentucky Max. 0.15 m (6 in) lift after compaction

    Alabama, Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri,

    Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin

    Max. 0.2 m (8 in) lift before compaction

    Louisiana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Texas, Wyoming

    Max. 0.3 m (12 in) lift before compaction

    New York Depends on Soil & Compaction Equipment

    After Hoppe (1999), Lenke (2006), and Kim et al. (2009).

    FIELD COMPACTION: LEFT HEIGHTS

  • Slide 26 of 38Revised 02/2013

    14.330 SOIL MECHANICSSoil Compaction

    FIELD COMPACTION: ONE POINT PROCTORSC-T-29: Standard Method of Test for Field Determination of

    Maximu

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