Wsn by checkmate

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complete wireless sensor networks


  • 1. 2013 CheckMate Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU 10/6/2013 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 2Abstract: Advances in silicon technology have led to the development of next-generation, low-cost, low-power, multifunctional, sensor devices. These devices communicate wirelessly to transmit their readings. They are called wireless sensors and present a new facet in the field of communication and computer networks. Wireless sensors are compact devices that integrate communication, computation and microelectrical mechanical (MEMS) devices into a single chip. A sensor network is a collection of communicating sensing devices or nodes. A large number of sensors can be spread across a geographical area and networked in many applications that require unattended operations, hence producing a wireless sensor network (WSN). The power of WSNs lies in the ability to deploy large numbers of such tiny sensor nodes. While the capability of any single device is minimal, the composition of hundreds of devices offers a significant opportunity for parallel, accurate and reliable data acquisition. Introduction: With the recent technological advances in wireless communications,integrated digital circuits, and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS); development of wireless sensor networks has been enabled and become dramatically feasible. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are large networks made of a numerous number of sensor nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many various routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) dependent on both the network architecture and the applications that it is designed for. In this paper, we present the state of the art of wireless sensor networks' architecture and design features. Also, in this paper, we introduce recent work on routing protocols for WSNs and their design goals and challenges. Also, an overview of the application that WSNs assist in is presented. Finally, several open research questions of wireless sensor networks management and issues are suggested and put forward. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is the result of the combination of sensor techniques, embedded techniques, distributed information processing, and communication mechanisms. A WSN is a network that is made of hundreds or 3. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 3 thousands of these sensor nodes which are densely deployed in an unattended environment with the capabilities of sensing, wireless communications and computations WSN is a network made of a numerous number of sensor nodes with sensing, wireless communications and computation capabilities. These sensor nodes are scattered in an unattended environment situated far from the user Routing Protocols for WSNs A. Flooding Flooding [5] is an old routing mechanism that may also be used in sensor networks. In Flooding, a node sends out the received data or the management packets to its neighbors by broadcasting, unless a maximum number of hops for that packet are reached or the destination of the packets is arrived. here are some deficiencies for this routing technique [ Implosion: is the case where a duplicated data or packets are sent to the same node. Overlap: if two sensor nodes cover an overlapping measuring region, both of them will sense/detect the same data. As a result, their neighbor nodes will receive duplicated data or messages. Resource blindness: A WSN protocol must be energy resource-aware and adapts its sensing, communication and computation to the state of its energy. B. Gossiping Gossiping protocol is an alternative to flooding mechanism. In Gossiping, nodes can forward the incoming data/packets to randomly selected neighbor node. Once a gossiping node receives the messages, it can forward the data back to that neighbor or to another one randomly selected neighbor node. This technique assists in energy conservation by randomization. Gossiping can solve the implosion problem. C. SPIN SPIN (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation) is a family of adaptive protocols for WSNs. Their design goal is to avoid the drawbacks of flooding 4. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 4 protocols mentioned above by utilizing data negotiation and resource-adaptive algorithms. D. Directed di_usion Directed di_usion is another data dissemination and aggregation protocol. It is a data-centric and application aware routing protocol for WSNs. It aims at naming all data generated by sensor nodes by attribute-value pairs. E. LEACH LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is a self-organizing, adaptive clustering-based protocol that uses randomized rotation of cluster- heads to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensor nodes in the network F. PEGASIS PEGASIS (Power-E_client GAthering in Sensor Information Systems) is a greedy chain-based power e_cient algorithm. The key features of PEGASIS are The BS is fixed at a far distance from the sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are homogeneous and energy constrained with uniform energy. No mobility of sensor nodes. G. GEAR GEAR (Geographical and Energy Aware Routing) is a recursive data dissemination protocol WSNs. It uses energy aware and geographically informed neighbor selection Heuristics to rout a packet to the targeted region Applications Various fields of applications of wireless sensor networks are: 5. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 5A. Area Monitoring: Area monitoring is a common application of WSNs. In area monitoring, the WSN is deployed over a region where some phenomenon is to be monitored. A military example is the use of sensors detects enemy intrusion; a civilian example is the geo-fencing of gas or oil pipelines. B. Environmental/Earth Monitoring: The term Environmental Sensor Networks, has evolved to cover many applications of WSNs to earth science research. This includes sensing volcanoes, oceans ,glaciers, forests . C. Air pollution Monitoring: Wireless sensor networks have been deployed in several cities (Stockholm, London or Brisbane) to monitor the concentration of dangerous gases for citizens. These can take advantage of the ad-hoc wireless links rather than wired installations, which also make them more mobile for testing readings in different areas. There are various architectures that can be used for such applications as well as different kinds of data analysis and data mining that can be conducted. D. Forest fire Detection: A network of Sensor Nodes can be installed in a forest to detect when a fire has started. The nodes can be equipped with sensors to measure temperature, humidity and gases which are produced by fire in the trees or vegetation. The early detection is crucial for a successful action of the firefighters; thanks to Wireless Sensor Networks, the fire brigade will be able to know when a fire is started and how it is spreading. E. Landslide Detection: 6. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 6 A landslide detection system,makes use of a wireless sensor network to detect the slight movements of soil and changes in various parameters that may occur before or during a landslide. Through the data gathered it may be possible to know the occurrence of landslides long before it actually happens. F. WaterQulity Monitoring: Water quality monitoring involves analyzing water properties in dams, rivers, lakes & oceans, as well as underground water reserves. The use of many wireless distributed sensors enables the creation of a more accurate map of the water status, and allows the permanent deployment of monitoring stations in locations of difficult access, without the need of manual data retrieval. G. Natural disaster Prevention: Wireless sensor networks can effectively act to prevent the consequences of natural disasters, like floods. Wireless nodes have successfully been deployed in rivers where changes of the water levels have to be monitored in real time. Industrial Monitoring H. Machine Health Monitoring: Wireless sensor networks have been developed for machinery condition- based maintenance (CBM) as they offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities. In wired systems, the installation of enough sensors is often limited by the cost of wiring. Previously inaccessible locations, rotating machinery, hazardous or restricted areas, and mobile assets can now be reached with wireless sensors. I. Data logging: 7. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Payal Umraliya Roll No: 99 [ (I.T) 7th Semester] VNSGU CheckMate 7 Wireless sensor networks are also used for the collection of data for monitoring of environmental information, this can be as simple as the monitoring of the temperature in a fridge to the level of water in overflow tanks in nuclear power plants. The statistical information can then be used to show how systems have been working. The advantage of WSNs over conventional loggers is the live data feed that is possible. J. Industrial sense and control applications: In recent research a vast number of wireless sensor network communication protocols have been developed. While previous research was primarily focused on power awareness, more recent research have begun to consider a wider range of aspects, such as wireless link reliability, real-time capabilities, or quality-of-service. These new aspects are considered as an enabler for future applications in industrial and related wireless sense and control applications, and partially replacing or enhancing conventional wire- based networks by WSN techniques. K. Green houses: Wireless sensor networks are