Wikis and Blogs: When, Why, and How to Use Them

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<ul><li>1.Wikis and Blogs: When, Why, and How to Use Them Leslie OFlahavan, E-WRITE Administrative Office of the US Courts Washington, DC September 4, 2008</li></ul> <p>2. Presentation overview </p> <ul><li>What wikis and blogs are and how they work</li></ul> <ul><li>Why wikis and blogs are such a popular way to publish content online</li></ul> <ul><li>How a wiki or blog could help your agency </li></ul> <ul><li>How to manage some of the liabilities of wikis and blogs </li></ul> <ul><li>A little bit about social networkingif time allows </li></ul> <p>3. Presentation schedule </p> <ul><li>Start and 9 a.m. EST </li></ul> <ul><li>End at 1 p.m. </li></ul> <ul><li>Have a 15-minute break at about 11 a.m. </li></ul> <ul><li>Participate in activities throughout </li></ul> <p>4. Part 1: Not all wikis are encyclopedias 5. What is a wiki? </p> <ul><li> A wikis just like a web site, only you can edit it. </li></ul> <p>6. What is a wiki? </p> <ul><li>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia </li></ul> <ul><li> Awikiis awebsitethat allows visitors to add, remove,editand change content, typically without the need for registration. It also allows forlinkingamong any number of pages. This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for masscollaborative authoring . The term wiki can also refer to thecollaborative softwareitself ( wiki engine ) that facilitates the operation of such a site, or to certain specific wiki sites, including thecomputer sciencesite (the original wiki)WikiWikiWeband online encyclopedias such asWikipedia . </li></ul> <p>7. Wikipedia: the most familiar wiki example 8. Wikipedia Main Page 9. Wikipedia: C&amp;O Canal page 10. C&amp;O Canal Discussion page 11. C&amp;O Canal Discussion page 12. C&amp;O Canal Editing page 13. C&amp;O Canal Revision History page 14. Common Craft: Wikis in Plain English 15. Discuss: How might a wiki solve your departments own e-mail-related communication problem? 16. How do a wiki and web site differ? 17. National Park Services C&amp;O Canal site 18. C&amp;O Canal Associations site 19. What kinds of wikis does this presentation cover? </p> <ul><li>Federal, state, local </li></ul> <ul><li>Project or task wikis: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Project Communication </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Application Support </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Research </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Product Planning </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Customer Service </li></ul></li></ul> <p>20. Some wiki samples 21. Shrink and Grow: This wiki acts as a design doc for the game 22. the Peoples Guide to Rochester 23. wikiHow: The How-to Manual Anyone Can Write Or Edit 24. FLICC/Fedlink Environmental Scan wiki 25. NCI caBIG 26. National Alliance for Medical Image Computing wiki 27. US Court of Appeals Seventh Circuit 28. Article on 7 thCircuits wiki 29. Argonne National Labs SEED Project Wiki 30. The AAA Wiki </p> <ul><li> Welcome to the AAA Wiki - created to coordinate the Assembly, Alignment and Annotation of the now 12 sequencedDrosophilagenomes.</li></ul> <p>31. Goochland County Public Schools 32. MassGIS Geospatial Web Services project wiki 33. caGrid provides the core enabling infrastructure necessary to compose the Grid of caBIG 34. Intellipedia 35. The hall of mirrors wiki: a presentation by Janel Brennan-Tillmann, UMD Coord. of Foreign Lang. Instructional Technology 36. Is it a wiki or a web page? 37. Why are wikis so popular? </p> <ul><li>Anyone can write or edit </li></ul> <ul><li>Outside the normal permissions and approval process for web content </li></ul> <ul><li>Encourage interaction</li></ul> <ul><li>Easy to learn</li></ul> <ul><li>User-defined life span </li></ul> <p>38. Wikis vs. Web sites </p> <ul><li>Require permission to publish </li></ul> <ul><li>Mediated by experts </li></ul> <ul><li>Transactional </li></ul> <ul><li>Governed by workflow or publishing cycle </li></ul> <ul><li>Graphic design conveys content organization to user </li></ul> <ul><li>Staffed by professionals with a range of skills: designers, developers, content types </li></ul> <ul><li>Judged by outcomes </li></ul> <ul><li>Relevant</li></ul> <ul><li>Useful </li></ul> <ul><li>Correct </li></ul> <ul><li>Alive </li></ul> <ul><li>Updated regularly </li></ul> <ul><li>Read </li></ul> <ul><li>Authored collaboratively </li></ul> <ul><li>Little to no graphic design </li></ul> <ul><li>Foster dialogue or conversation </li></ul> <ul><li>Socially mediated </li></ul> <ul><li>Content author in charge of content over time </li></ul> <p>Web Sites Shared Traits Wikis 39. Edit-before-publish vs.Edit-after-publish </p> <ul><li> Something thats 80% accurate, on time, and shareable is better than something that is too much, perfectly formatted, too late, and over-classified. </li></ul> <ul><li>Chris Rasmussen, Knowledge Management Officer, Intellipedia, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense </li></ul> <p>40. Discuss </p> <ul><li>What are the risks involved in launching a wiki for your department or court? </li></ul> <ul><li>What kinds of policies or guidelines would you need to have in place to offset the risks? </li></ul> <p>41. Why do you need wiki writing guidelines? </p> <ul><li>Organic growth of content can cause many communication problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Producing valuable content of any type requires reviewing and editing </li></ul> <ul><li>Wiki userssearchvs.navigate , thus putting extra pressure on words </li></ul> <p>42. What should the wiki writing guidelines cover? </p> <ul><li>How toorganizecontent </li></ul> <ul><li>How to make contenteasy to read</li></ul> <ul><li>How to write as a wiki citizen </li></ul> <p>43. Guidelines on writing to organize </p> <ul><li>How to name pages </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Use concrete descriptive words; use the most commonly searched terms: notIDbutSocial Security NumberorPassport </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Strive for names you can use in a sentence: nothips replacement surgerybuthip replacement surgery </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide guidance on caps, numbers, special characters </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Give a name that will last over time: notProposal Final Version </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Avoid beginning with articles: notThe Interagency Agreements Team </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Develop naming guidelines for different types of pages/articles </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>How (or whether) to group pages </li></ul> <p>44. Clear naming at Library Success: A Best Practices Wiki 45. HRE Wiki: Naming Problem </p> <ul><li>HREwiki </li></ul> <ul><li>Home </li></ul> <ul><li>Ready-to-useresources </li></ul> <ul><li>Resourcesindevelopment </li></ul> <ul><li>Images </li></ul> <ul><li>New topics </li></ul> <ul><li>Projects </li></ul> <ul><li>Useful websites </li></ul> <ul><li>Featured resources </li></ul> <ul><li>the Univeral Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul> <ul><li>Nepal </li></ul> <ul><li>death Penalty - teaching materials </li></ul> <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul> <ul><li>Voices of people affected by human rights abuses </li></ul> <ul><li>Ideas for HRE </li></ul> <ul><li>Using this wiki </li></ul> <ul><li>Requestapassword </li></ul> <ul><li>Writingforthiswiki </li></ul> <ul><li>Developingthiswiki </li></ul> <ul><li>'How to' </li></ul> <ul><li>Reporting problems </li></ul> <ul><li>Reproducingcontent </li></ul> <ul><li>Terms of Use </li></ul> <ul><li>Disclaimer </li></ul> <ul><li>About </li></ul> <p>46. Debian wiki: organized by user 47. Guidelines on writing readable wiki content </p> <ul><li>Headings </li></ul> <ul><li>Vertical lists </li></ul> <ul><li>Links (noclick here ) </li></ul> <ul><li>Conciseness</li></ul> <ul><li>Tone </li></ul> <ul><li>Mechanical correctness </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Abbreviations </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Dates </li></ul></li></ul> <p>48. Wiki wall of words 49. Bulleted wiki article:Easy to scan or read? 50. Developing a wiki that contains few content types requires explicit writing guidance. 51. PolicyOptions Wiki: Lots of guidance about writing issue briefs 52. Guidelines on writing as a wiki citizen </p> <ul><li>Use your real name </li></ul> <ul><li>Write objectively (?) </li></ul> <ul><li>Comment considerately </li></ul> <ul><li>Contribute original content </li></ul> <ul><li>Avoid slang </li></ul> <ul><li>Explain edits in Comments section </li></ul> <p>53. Wiki software options </p> <ul><li>MediaWiki </li></ul> <ul><li>Tikiwiki </li></ul> <ul><li>PBwiki - </li></ul> <ul><li>Wikipedias article Comparison of wiki software at </li></ul> <p>54. Wiki writing guidelines </p> <ul><li>ColabWiki:Wiki Style Guide </li></ul> <ul><li>IBMsRedwiki Writing Guidelines and Etiquette </li></ul> <ul><li>wikiHowsWriters Guide </li></ul> <ul><li>BattleMaster wikiStyle Guide </li></ul> <ul><li>LinuxQuestions.orgsLQWiki:Manual of Style </li></ul> <ul><li>MuppetWikiBuilding a successful wiki community </li></ul> <p>55. Wiki resources </p> <ul><li>NIH Wiki Fair February 28, 2007 </li></ul> <ul><li>Wiki Home Page at COLAB , the collaborative work environment: Hosted by GSA Intergovernmental Solutions</li></ul> <ul><li>Which Wiki is Right for You?inSchool Library Journal , May 1, 2007 </li></ul> <p>56. Part 2: Blogs 57. What is a blog? </p> <ul><li> A weblog, which is usually shortened to blog, is a website where regular entries are made (such as in a journal or diary) and presented in reverse chronological order. Blogs often offer commentary or news on a particular subject, such as technology, politics, or local news Ablog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic.</li></ul> <p>58. How is a blog different from a website? </p> <ul><li>Easy</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>to set up </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>to update </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>to organize and archive </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Interactive </li></ul> <ul><li>PersonalIndividual POV, not agency </li></ul> <p>59. How do blogs work? </p> <ul><li>How do you publish a blog? </li></ul> <ul><li>How do you read a blog? </li></ul> <p>60. How do you publish a blog? </p> <ul><li>Use off-the-shelf, user-friendly software (blogware) to </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Create new blog posts </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Organize, archive and retrieve information from old posts </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Create links from your posts </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Enable other bloggers to link back to a specific post on your blog (Permalinks) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Let bloggers see who has viewed their posts and commented (TrackBack) </li></ul></li></ul> <p>61. How do you read a blog? </p> <ul><li>Subscribe to a blog with</li></ul> <ul><li>RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed </li></ul> <ul><li>Portal or browser based aggregators (GoogleReader) </li></ul> <ul><li>Web based aggregators (Bloglines, FeedReader) </li></ul> <ul><li>E-mail updates </li></ul> <p>62. Subscribe with RSS 63. Use a blog aggregator 64. Get blog posts by e-mail 65. Who blogs? </p> <ul><li>In April 2007, blog search and measurement firmTechnoratiwas tracking over 70 million blogs and reported seeing about 120,000 new blogs created each day. That's 1.4 blogs every second. (</li></ul> <p>66. Who blogs in the Federal government? 67. Why do Federal agencies blog? </p> <ul><li>Communicate with the public </li></ul> <ul><li>Communicate internally </li></ul> <ul><li>Blogging puts a human face on government [and] makes government more open. </li></ul> <ul><li>--Bev Godwin,</li></ul> <p>68. </p> <ul><li>Humanize your agency </li></ul> <ul><li>Create a dialogue</li></ul> <ul><li>Get feedback </li></ul> <ul><li>Keep public updated </li></ul> <ul><li>Improve visibilitysearch engine placement </li></ul> <p>A new way to communicate with the public 69. </p> <ul><li>Share information </li></ul> <ul><li>Create community agency-wide, nationwide or worldwide </li></ul> <p>A new way to communicate within the agency 70. Before starting a blog, consider </p> <ul><li>Whats your purpose? </li></ul> <ul><li>Who will write the blog? </li></ul> <ul><li>Will you allow comments?</li></ul> <ul><li>Whats your approval process?</li></ul> <ul><li>What legal issues should you address? </li></ul> <p>71. Disseminate Information:DC Public Safety Blog 72. Support a project: The Big Read 73. Add Value: Eye Level 74. Customer interaction: TSAs Evolution of Security 75. A 6-week special event blog: EPA 76. Personal Experience: Volunteer Journals 77. Discuss: How could a blog help your organization improve communication? 78. Who will write the blog? </p> <ul><li>Theyve got to be authentic. You must be the author of your postnot your staff, not your secretary or administrative staff, and certainly not your campaign manager or consultant. </li></ul> <ul><li>-- Christopher Barger, IBM blogging consultant </li></ul> <p>79. Director, Corps of Engineers 80. Director, CBO 81. A team of employees 82. Front-line employees 83. Will you allow comments? </p> <ul><li>Most federal agencies allow comments </li></ul> <ul><li>Will you moderate or edit the comments? </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Edit for grammar </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Edit for content </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Limit comments to specific issues </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>What will you do with the commentsfeedback? </li></ul> <p>84. Will you allow comments? </p> <ul><li>Without comments, a blog is just a glorified press release. </li></ul> <ul><li>-- Mike Cornfield, professor, George Washington University </li></ul> <p>85. No Comments 86. Enabling comments 87. TheCorps-e-spondencecomments policy 88. Evolution of Security comments policy 89. How will you use comments? </p> <ul><li>Change policies or programs </li></ul> <ul><li>Get customer feedback </li></ul> <ul><li>Incorporate comments into your posts </li></ul> <p>90. Incorporate comments:Corps-e-spondence 91. The blog approval process? </p> <ul><li>Outside formal clearance process</li></ul> <ul><li>Posts will need to be reviewed before theyre published </li></ul> <ul><li>Blogger + blogs purpose + blog publication schedule </li></ul> <p>92. Legal issues </p> <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Does your organization have confidentially guidelines for other types of communication? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)</li></ul> <ul><li>Copyright</li></ul> <p>93. Establish and publish blog policies </p> <ul><li>Incorporate your decisions on into a written blog policy</li></ul> <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul> <ul><li>Writers/contributors </li></ul> <ul><li>Comments policy </li></ul> <ul><li>Approvals process </li></ul> <ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul> <p>94. Publish your blog policies: GSA GovGab 95. Resources </p> <ul><li>Blogs from the U.S. Government </li></ul> <ul><li>Blogs in Government , Bev Godwin, July, 2006 </li></ul> <ul><li> </li></ul> <p>96. Managing the liabilities of wikis and blogs </p> <ul><li>Before publishing, identify the purpose of your wiki or blog and measure the risk against that purpose </li></ul> <ul><li>Remember that wikis and blogs are publishing tools; we CAN manage publishing</li></ul> <ul><li>Develop guidelines for publishers/contributors and for users/readers </li></ul> <ul><li>Limit access </li></ul> <ul><li>Learn from those who have gone before you! </li></ul> <p>97. Blog Scenario #1</p> <ul><li>Your agency director wants each division head to write an internal blog. </li></ul> <ul><li>The director wants to review each blog post by each division head before its posted. </li></ul> <ul><li>We speak with one voice and that voice is the voice of the director. </li></ul> <p>98. Blog Scenario #2 </p> <ul><li>Due to changes in legislation, a post from March 2008 contains incorrect information. </li></ul> <p>99. Wiki scenario #1 </p> <ul><li>You launch a wiki, tell the team about it, set up passwords for all contributors, and post information on the wiki yourself. </li></ul> <ul><li>No one else contributes content or refers to the wiki. </li></ul> <p>100. Wiki scenario #2 </p> <ul><li>Your wiki is growing rapidly and some of the content is of first draft quality. </li></ul> <p>101. Wiki scenario #3: </p> <ul><li>Joe writes an e-mail to Sue.His e-mail includes a well-written explanation of a complex process. </li></ul> <ul><li>Sue likes the e-mail so well that she publishes it to the departments wiki without asking Joes permission. </li></ul> <p>102. Social Networking: Sharing, Rating, Connecting 103. Sharing: YouTube 104. Sharing: Slideshare 105. Rating or social bookmarking 106. Rating: Digg 107. Rating: StumbleUpon 108. Connecting: LinkedIn 109. LinkedIn: US Courts 110. Connecting: Facebook 111. Connecting: Ning 112. Connecting: Twitter 113. Questions or comments? </p> <ul><li>Clare De Cleene</li></ul> <ul><li>Web Communications Manager </li></ul> <ul><li>Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts </li></ul> <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul> <ul><li>202-502-1182 (Direct Line) </li></ul> <ul><li>202-502-2615 (Web Help Desk)</li></ul> <ul><li>Leslie OFlahavan</li></ul> <ul><li>E-WRITE </li></ul> <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul> <ul><li>301-989-9583 </li></ul>