Why do people in Latin America choose to live in particular places?
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DESCRIPTIONWhy do people in Latin America choose to live in particular places?. Climate. Resources. Location. Venezuela. Mexico. Brazil. Cuba. Climates of the World. Venezuelas Resources. Resources Minerals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Why do people in Latin America choose to live in particular places?
Why do people in Latin America choose to live in particular places?LocationClimateResourcesVenezuela
Climates of the World
Venezuelas ResourcesResourcesMineralsVenezuelas most economically significant natural resources are petroleum and natural gas, the mining of which accounts for about one-fifth of the gross domestic product (GDP) but less than 1 percent of the workforce. Coal is also important, and there are largely unexploited deposits of iron ore, bauxite, and other minerals. Some of the largest proven petroleum reserves in the world exist in the Orinoco delta and offshore, as well as in the eastern Llanos, in Guarico, Anzoategui, and Monagas states, in the Lake Maracaibo Lowlands (mainly Zulia state), and in the western Llanos, particularly in the states of Barinas and Apure. Before the government nationalized the industry, multinational firms accounted for more than four-fifths of production. Refining was primarily accomplished offshore in Aruba, Curaao, and elsewhere in the Caribbean. After nationalization a state-owned company, Petrleos de Venezuela, SA (PDVSA), assumed responsibility for production, but PDVSA still depended heavily on foreign oil companies to refine, transport, and market the oil and natural gas and to provide technical assistance. The government, faced with economic difficulties, adopted reforms in the late 1980s and 90s that included reopening the petroleum sector to foreign investment, notably to further explore and develop heavy crude oil deposits in the Orinoco basin, to upgrade refineries, and to streamline production through joint ventures. In a reversal of this trend, the oil industry became the focus of Chvezs nationalization efforts in 2006, and in 2007 he completed the takeover of the sector by seizing operational control of the last privately run oil operation in the countrythe Orinoco basin oil projectsfrom foreign-owned companies. Some of the heavy oil from the Orinoco basin is used to create bitumen-rich orimulsion, a boiler fuel that burns less cleanly than many other fuel sources.Venezuela also has abundant natural gas deposits, again among the worlds largest proven reserves, and PDVSA has formed joint ventures for its exploration and production. In addition, a PDVSA subsidiary, Carbozulia, has developed major coal reserves in the Guasar River basin.Modern iron-ore mining in Venezuela began in the mid-20th century in the region surrounding present-day Ciudad Guayana, based on deposits at Cerro Bolvar and El Pao. In 1975 the U.S.-owned mining operations were nationalized, and the government-owned Venezuelan Guayana Corporation assumed control. Production of iron ore has grown substantially since the mid-1980s.In the mid-1970s large deposits of bauxite were discovered in the Guiana Highlands, much of it high-grade ore suitable for alumina smelting in the Ciudad Guayana complex. Other important nonferrous minerals include gold and diamonds in the Guiana Highlands, coal northwest of Lake Maracaibo, salt deposits in the Araya Peninsula, and scattered deposits of industrial-grade limestone. There are also economically important quantities of nickel, phosphates, copper, zinc, lead, titanium, and manganese, and surveys indicate the existence of substantial deposits of uranium and thorium.
Cubas Resources Resources and powerBecause the supply of river water is limited, wells in La Habana province and elsewhere draw heavily on groundwater supplies. The main hydroelectric power plants are located in southeastern Cuba.Domestic petroleum and natural gas deposits supply a growing portion of the countrys needs, but the majority is met by imports from Mexico and Venezuela. In fact, since the 1990s Cuba has received free oil from Venezuela in exchange for sending thousands of its doctors to treat Venezuelas poor. In the mid-2000s Venezuela funded the renovation of a dilapidated oil refinery in the Cienfuegos area of Cuba. The refinery has the capacity to refine hundreds of thousands of barrels of the oil imported from Venezuela. Peat, concentrated in the Zapata Peninsula, is still the most extensive fuel reserve. Nickel, chromite, and copper mines are important to Cuba, and beds of laterite (an iron ore) in the Holgun region have considerable potential. Nickel ore, which also yields cobalt, is processed in several large plants, and Cuba is a world leader in nickel production. There are also major reserves of magnetite and manganese and lesser amounts of lead, zinc, gold, silver, and tungsten. Abundant reserves of limestone, rock salt, gypsum, kaolin (china clay), and marble are found on Juventud Island.
Mexicos ResourcesResources and powerMinerals have been an important part of the economy throughout Mexicos history. Mexico is the worlds leading producer of silver, which has long been the most valuable metal extracted there. The major mining area during the colonial period was the so-called Silver Belt, a region that extended from Guanajuato and Zacatecas in the Mesa Central to Chihuahua in the Mesa del Norte, with outposts such as San Luis Potos farther east.The Silver Belt is still Mexicos primary source of nonfuel minerals, although now both industrial and precious minerals are sought. Silver is taken from the older centres of Guanajuato, Pachuca, and Zacatecas. Zinc, bauxite (the ore of aluminum), lead, gold, mercury, cadmium, and such trace minerals as antimony and manganese are also important. The once-rich copper deposits discovered in the late 1800s near Santa Rosala in Baja California have been largely depleted. The countrys largest remaining deposits of copper are exploited in open-pit mines at Cananea and La Caridad in northern Sonora state. Iron ore deposits near Durango were first mined in the early 20th century.Mexico ranks among the worlds most prolific petroleum-producing countries, and petroleum exports account for a large share of foreign-exchange earnings. Mexicos first commercially productive petroleum fields were discovered about 1900 off Tampico on the Gulf Coast. Shortly thereafter, foreign investors helped exploit additional fields farther south, near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The oil industry was nationalized in 1938 with the creation of Petrleos Mexicanos (Pemex), and the Mexican constitution states that the oil industry must remain under state control. (In 2008, however, because of declining oil production, the Mexican Congress passed a series of controversial energy reforms that included provisions to allow private investment in Pemex for the first time since 1938.)Pemex, Latin Americas largest petroleum company, is a semiautonomous governmental agency charged with petroleum exploration, production, and marketing. It produces several hundred billion barrels of oil annually and operates major petroleum-producing fields in the Gulf of Mexico and along its coast, including the Poza Rica (near Tuxpan), the Tampico-Misantla basin, and various sites in Chiapas and Tabasco. Major natural gas fields are located near Reynosa in northeastern Mexico, near Veracruz, and in the Chiapas-Tabasco region of the Gulf of Mexico coast. The country has huge proven and potential reserves of petroleum and substantial reserves of natural gas.A system of oil and natural gas pipelines has been constructed to move these products to major cities in the Mesa Central and to the U.S. border, where they formerly linked up with pipelines in the United States. Large oil refineries have been built near the Gulf of Mexico at Minatitln and Reynosa to augment the older productive capacity of those at Ciudad Madero near Tampico. Additional refineries are located at Salamanca, Tula and Atzcapotzalco near Mexico City, Poza Rica, and Salina Cruz. Sulfur is found in conjunction with petroleum in many of the Gulf fields and is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of products. Petrochemical plants have been built in Veracruz state at Coatzacoalcos, the major export centre for sulfur products, and at Ciudad Pemex in Tabasco. Both are located in formerly unpopulated rainforest regions. A number of petrochemical sites are also found near refineries in the Mesa Central.Thermal power plants, fired mainly by oil and natural gas, generate about three-fourths of Mexicos electricity. Both nuclear power and renewable resources (wind, solar, and biomass) combined account for about one-tenth of the countrys electric power, and hydroelectric complexes provide about one-sixth of the countrys needs. In the 1940s and 50s, hydroelectric power was seen as vital for the country. Because of their proximity to major population clusters, most of the early projects were located on the streams exiting the eastern and southern escarpments of the Mesa Central. Better transmission technologies subsequently permitted hydroelectric complexes to be located farther away, such as the Malpaso Project on the Grijalva River on the margins of the Chiapas Highlands.Brazils ResourcesBrazil Natural Resourcesmainly include Iron OreManganese Bauxite Nickel Granite Limestone Clay Sand TinGold PlatinumUranium Gems Petroleum Phosphates Timber Hydroelectric Power