What is the latest fashion-Genetic Engineering

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What is the latest fashion?

Dream comes trueWith Genetic EngineeringPrepare by : Sumaiah Alghamdi- Norah AlhoshaniNora alkahtani -Hind alsubaieSubmitted to :Dr. Zinab qurni

Content IntrodictionExample of genetic engineering applicationReengineering a transmembrane protein Gentically modified insect Egg engineeringReferences

What is the latest fashion?

1- Fluorescent dressesYumi Katsura

1-Fluorescent dresses ..cont The researchers inserted glowing proteins, borrowed from corals and jellyfish, into the silkworm genome near the gene for the silk protein fibroin. They then raised more than 20,000 transgenic silkworms, which expressed fibroin proteins with the fluorescent molecules attached, and collected their colorful cocoons.

1-Fluorescent dresses ..cont

2-Silkworms produce artificial spider silk

A research has succeeded in producing transgenic silkworms using piggyBac capable of spinning artificial spider silks. PiggyBac is a piece of DNA known as a transposon that can insert itself into the genetic machinery of a cell. The genetically engineered silk protein produced by the transgenic silkworms has markedly improved elasticity and strength approaching that of native spider silk.

2-Silkworms produce artificial spider silk

3- Fluorescent fish Researchers in Hong Kong have developed a fish that glows in the presence of estrogen-like chemicals called estrogenic endocrine disruptorsScientists inserted a green fluorescent protein gene into the genome of the medaka fish and positioned it next to a gene that senses estrogen

4-Stronger dogsScientists in China say they are the first to use gene editing to produce customized dogs. They created a beagle with double the amount of muscle mass by deleting a gene called myostatin.The dogs have more muscles and are expected to have stronger running ability, which is good for hunting, police (military) applications,

5- Blue rose researchers in Suntorys Institute for Plant Science using advanced technology to reduce the levels of red/purple color and isolating the blue pigment gene from pansy and hybridizing to that of a rose, could this tinge of blue be created.The transgenic carnation and rose also contain selectable marker genes for herbicide resistance in carnation and antibiotic resistanc in rose.

6- Invisibility cloaksResearchers using arrays of minuscule 'elements' that bend, scatter, transmit or otherwise shape electromagnetic radiation in ways that no natural material can. And many metamaterials researchers are trying to make cloaking a reality, can used for military

6- Invisibility cloaks

Reengineering a transmembrane protein to treat muscular dystrophy using exon skipping

Introduction to Muscular dystrophy

Normal Dystrophin gene

Main areas of muscle weakness in different types of dystrophy

Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC)Dystrophin and its associated proteins localize to the muscle plasma membrane, acting as a linker between cell skeleton to connective tissue in muscle fibers.

Mutations that disrupt the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) cause muscular dystrophy.

Sarcoglycan sub complexThe sarcoglycan sub complex within the DGC is composed of 4 single-pass transmembrane subunits: -, -, -, and -sarcoglycan. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding -, -, -, and - sarcoglycan cause the limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) type 2D, 2E, 2C, and 2F, respectively.

limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD)The sarcoglycan complex is localized at the muscle membrane, and loss-of-function mutations in mice and humans result in the absence of plasma membraneassociated staining.

LGMD 2C patients have mutations in SGCG, the gene encoding -sarcoglycan.

Exon skipping

Is a type of gene therapy by using which blocks translation using antisense oligonucleotide. is a strategy in which an antisense oligo-nucleotide is used to coax cells into skipping an exon (region of genetic instructions), splice together remaining exons and produce a functional protein.

SGCG, Mini_ GammaMini-Gammas capacity to substitute for full-length -sarcoglyca.

Mini_ Gamma rescues Drosophila muscular dystrophy Full-length murine -sarcoglycan (mGSG) localized to the sarcolemma when expressed in Sgcd840 muscle ,indicating that the mGSG normally translocates in Drosophila muscle.

Mini_ Gamma rescues Drosophila muscular dystrophyExpression of murine MiniGamma showed the same distinct plasma membrane localization when expressed in Sgcd840 flies.Expression of MiniGamma in Sgcd840 hearts also showed plasma membraneassociated staining in the thin-walled heart tube structure.

Measure Drosophila heart functionOptical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used to measure heart tube dimension during both contraction and relaxation. Sgcd840 flies had dilated heart tubes with significantly increased end systolic dimension (ESD) compared with WT Expression of Mini-Gamma in the heart tube was sufficient to restore ESD to WT dimensions.

Drosophila activity monitor

Gentically modified insect

Introduction Insect responsible for economic and social harm worldwide through the transmission of disease to humans and animals, and damage to crops. Their genetic modification has been proposed as a new way of controlling insect pests. However, regulatory guidelines governing the use of such technology have not yet been fully developed.

Current Insect Control Strategies

Genetic Modification of InsectsGenetically modified (GM) insects are produced by inserting new genes into their DNA.Many genes have been identified that can alter the behaviour and biology of insects.When these genes are inserted into an insects genome they are called transgenes, by injecting DNA containing the desired genes into the eggs of insects.

Researchers use a wide variety of transgenes, derived from a variety of organisms, to modify insects:

Potential Control Strategies: Scientists have proposed two distinct strategies involving the release of GM insects.Population suppression: is a method in which insects are engineered to ensure that when they mate with wild individuals no viable offspring are produced or producing progeny that died before they can transmit disease.Population replacement: strategies involve permanently replacing wild populations of insects with GM varieties( anti-pathogen gene) that have been altered to render them less able to transmit disease..

Paratransgenesis insectParatransgenesis was first conceived by Frank Richards (1996)Paratransgenesis is a technique that attempts to eliminate a pathogen from vector populations through transgenesis of a symbiont of the vector. The goal of this technique is to control vector-borne diseases. EngineerTriatominae express proteins such as Cecropin A that are toxic toT. cruzior that block the transmission ofT. cruzi.

INSECTS GENESCHARACTER MODIFIEDAnopheles SM 1Disease causing ability destroyed

2. Culex DefensinDisease spreading ability is lost3. Silkworm Spider flagelliform silkEnhances quality of silk protein4. Wolbachia Attacin and CecopinInfective capacity is lost5. Xylella S 1Disease causing capacity is absent

Introduced transgenes in insect

How GM mosquito work

How GM mosquito work

How GM mosquito work

ConclusionThe Potential Benefits of GM Insect StrategiesThey would target only a single insect pest species, leaving beneficial insects unharmed.GM insects could reduce the need for insecticides and any associated toxic residues in the environment.When used in disease control programmes GM insects would protect everyone in the area.

Egg engineering

EGG ENGINEERS

In a technical tour de force, Japanese researchers created eggs and sperm in the laboratory. Now, scientists have to determine how to use those cells safely and ethically

Introduction

Ince last October, molecular biologist Katsuhiko Hayashi has received around a dozen emails from couples, most of them middle-aged, who are desperate for one thing: a baby. One menopausal woman from England offered to come to his laboratory at Kyoto University in Japan in the hope that he could help her to conceive a child. The requests started trickling in after Hayashi published the results of an experiment that he had assumed would be of interest mostly to developmental biologists. Starting with the skin cells of mice in vitro, he created primordial germ cells (PGCs), which can develop into both sperm and eggs. To prove that these laboratory-grown versions were truly similar to naturally occurring PGCs, he used them to create eggs, then used those eggs to create live mice. He calls the live births a mere side effect of the research, but that bench experiment became much more, because it raised the prospect of creating fertilizable eggs from the skin cells of infertile women. And it also suggested that mens skin cells could be used to create eggs, and that sperm could be generated from womens cells.

BACK TO THE BEGINNING

In the mouse, germ cells emerge just after the first week of embryonic development, as a group of around 40 PGCs2. This little cluster goes on to form the tens of thousands of eggs that female mice have at birth, and the millions of sperm cells that males produce every day, and it will pass on the mouses entire genetic heritage. Saitou wanted to understand what signals direct these cells throughout their development. Over the past decade, he has laboriously identified several genes including Stella, Blimp1 and Prdm14 that, when expressed in certain combinations and at certain times, play a crucial part in PGC development 35. Using these genes as markers, he was able to

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