water supply and irrigation
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Water supply and irrigation
Water supply and irrigation SUMMITED BY:- GAURAV SHARMA ROLL NO. :- 14PUR002
Infrastructure planning and managementINTRODUCTIONBillions of people are still striving to access the most basic human needs which are food, shelter, safe drinking water and sanitary systems.
According to the human rights, adequate water is a right to everyone.
Generally, governments are responsible to provide water to meet basic human needs and to improve the water supply system to meet standards of reliable, efficient, and equitable management .World Bank Water StatisticsEvery year insecure water and a lack of basic sanitation kills a minimum of 1.6 million children under the age of 5.Up until 1990 1.1 billion people in the world did not have access to an improved source of drinking water84%(924000000) of the population who did not have access to an improved source of drinking water live in rural areas.5 times more rural than city dwellers lack safe water.Sources of WaterRainwater, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water. Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc, are man-made sources of water.
Rain Water:Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.
Surface Water:Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds and streams is called surface water. The water in rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of snow on mountains. Rivers flow into the sea.
Underground Water:Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on to the non-porous rocks below. This is underground water. Sometimes due to high pressure, this water sprouts out in the form of springs. It can be obtained by digging wells, sinking tube wells, etc.
CONFLICT AND OPRETION
water conflict between india and pakistanThe water dispute between India and Pakistan is serious not only because of water, but also due to the political rivalry between the two countries.The water dispute between them started soon after thepartitionof the subcontinent in 1947. Until the Indus Water.
water conflict between india and bangladeshJust 20 years ago, the river flowed fast and strong, sustaining the lives of millions of people. But theTeesta has now been reduced to a trickle in northern Bangladesh, say affected villagers, many of whom have been staging protests in the capital Dhaka and elsewhere.India-China: A Water War over the Brahmaputrathe Brahmaputra River have been doing the rounds ever since Chinas announcement about the construction of three dams on the river last in 2011.Chinas per capita water reserve is approximately 2300 cubic metres one-fourth of the worlds average. China is, therefore, considered as the 13th most water-poor country in the world with 80 per cent of its cities severely water stressed.China is keen to divert 150 billion cubic meters (BCM) of water and push the waters to irrigate northern China. Of this, 50 BCM would be diverted from the Brahmaputra. In October 2013, India asserted the need for a water sharing with China.
Cauvery water dispute between Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
(ii) The Krishna water dispute between Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
(iii) The Tungabhadra water dispute between Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
(iv) The Aliyar and Bhivani river water dispute between Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
(v) The Godavari river water dispute between Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Karnataka.
(vi) The Narmada water dispute between Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
(vii) The Mahi river dispute between Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
(viii) The Ravi and Beas river water dispute between Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir and Delhi.
Inter-state River Water(ix) The Satluj-Yamuna Link canal dispute between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
(x) The Yamuna river water dispute between Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi.
(xi) The Karmanasa river water dispute between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
(xii) The Barak river water dispute between Assam and Manipur.
NATIONAL WATER POLICYINRODUCTION A scarce natural resource, water is fundamental to life, livelihood, food security and sustainable development. India has more than 18 % of the worlds population, but has only 4% of worlds renewable water resources and 2.4% of worlds land area. There are further limits on utilizable quantities of water owing to uneven distribution over time and space. In addition, there are challenges of frequent floods and droughts in one or the other part of the country. With a growing population and rising needs of a fast developing nation as well as the given indications of the impact of climate change, availability of utilizable water will be under further strain in future with the possibility of deepening water conflicts among different user groups.
The present scenario of water resources and their management in India has given rise to several concerns, important amongst them are;
Large parts of India have already become water stressed. Because demand for water ,population growth, urbanization and changing lifestyle.
(ii)Mismanagement of water resources has led to a critical situation in many parts of the country.
(iii) There is wide temporal and spatial variation in availability of water, which may increase substantially due to a combination of climate change, causing deepening of water crisis and incidences of water related disasters, i.e., floods, increased erosion and increased frequency of droughts, etc.
(iv) Climate change may also increase the sea levels. Effect upon ground water aquifers / surface waters and agriculture and industry in such regions. (v) safe water for drinking water availability of between different regions and different people in the same region and also the intermittent and unreliable water supply system has the potential of causing social unrest.
(vi) Groundwater, though part of hydrological cycle and a community resource, is still perceived as an individual property .over-exploitation in several areas by it. (vii) Water resources projects, though multi-disciplinary with multiple stakeholders, are being planned and implemented in a fragmented manner without giving due consideration to optimum utilization, environment sustainability and holistic benefit to the people. (viii) Inter-regional, inter-State, intra-State, as also inter-sectoral disputes in sharing of water, strain relationships and hamper the optimal utilization of water through scientific planning on basin/sub-basin basis.
(ix) Natural water bodies and drainage channels are being encroached upon, and diverted for other purposes. Ground water recharge zones are often blocked
(x) Growing pollution of water sources, especially through industrial effluents, is affecting the availability of safe water besides causing environmental and health hazards.
(xi) Access to water for sanitation and hygiene is an even more serious problem for polluting the water sources. (xii) Low consciousness about the overall scarcity and economic value of water results in its wastage and inefficient use.
(xiii) The lack of adequate trained personnel for scientific planning, utilizing modern techniques and analytical capabilities incorporating information technology constrains good water management.
(xiv) A holistic and inter-disciplinary approach at water related problems is missing. (xv) The public agencies in charge of taking water related decisions tend to take these on their own without consultation with stakeholders, often resulting in poor and unreliable service characterized by inequities of various kinds.
(xvi) Characteristics of catchment areas of streams, rivers and recharge zones of aquifers are changing as a consequence of land use and land cover changes, affecting water resource availability and quality.
DEMAND AND ANALYSIS OF WATER IN INDIADomestic Water DemandWith increasing household income and increasing contributions from the service and industrial sectors, the water demand in the domestic and industrial sectors could increase substantially. We assume that the average domestic water demand would increase from 85 liters per capita per day (lpcd) in 2000, to 125 and 170 lpcd by 2025 and 2050, respectively. We estimate the livestock water demand to increase from 2.3 BCM in 2000 to 2.8 and 3.2 BCM by 2025 and 2050, respectively.National Commission on Integrated Water Resources Development (India)
an analysis using the global trends show that, with the present economic growth rates, the per capita industrial water demand could increase from 42 m3 /person in 2000, to about 66 and 102 m3 /person by 2025 and 2050, respectively or the total industrial water demand to increase to 92 and 161 BCM by 2025 and 2050, respectively. The BAU scenario too assumes these growth rates.Industrial Water DemandIn chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than7are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than7are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH very close to7.STANDARD OF WATER ACCORDING TO PH VALUE
Irrigationis the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.IRRIGATIONTypes of Irrigation Systems in India1.Well Water Irrigation system:Wells are mainly found in U. P., Bihar, Tamil Nadu etc. there are various types of wellsshallow wells, deep wells, tube wells, artesian wells etc.