vsphere esxi vcenter server 51 resource management guide
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vSphere Resource ManagementESXi 5.1
vCenter Server 5.1
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About vSphere Resource Management 7
1 Getting Started with Resource Management 9
Resource Types 9Resource Providers 9Resource Consumers 10Goals of Resource Management 10
2 Configuring Resource Allocation Settings 11
Resource Allocation Shares 11Resource Allocation Reservation 12Resource Allocation Limit 13Resource Allocation Settings Suggestions 13Edit System Resource Allocation 13Changing Resource Allocation SettingsExample 14Admission Control 15
3 CPU Virtualization Basics 17
Software-Based CPU Virtualization 17Hardware-Assisted CPU Virtualization 18Virtualization and Processor-Specific Behavior 18Performance Implications of CPU Virtualization 18
4 Administering CPU Resources 19
View Processor Information 19View Processor Information in the vSphere Web Client 20Specifying CPU Configuration 20Multicore Processors 20Hyperthreading 21Using CPU Affinity 24Host Power Management Policies 26
5 Memory Virtualization Basics 31
Virtual Machine Memory 31Memory Overcommitment 32Memory Sharing 32Software-Based Memory Virtualization 33Hardware-Assisted Memory Virtualization 33
6 Administering Memory Resources 35
Understanding Memory Overhead 35
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How ESXi Hosts Allocate Memory 36Memory Tax for Idle Virtual Machines 37Memory Reclamation 37Using Swap Files 38Swapping to Host Cache 44Sharing Memory Across Virtual Machines 45Memory Compression 46Measuring and Differentiating Types of Memory Usage 47Memory Reliability 48About System Swap 49
7 Managing Storage I/O Resources 51
Storage I/O Control Requirements 51Storage I/O Control Resource Shares and Limits 52Set Storage I/O Control Resource Shares and Limits 54Set Storage I/O Control Resource Shares and Limits in the vSphere Web Client 54Enable Storage I/O Control 55Enable Storage I/O Control in the vSphere Web Client 55Set Storage I/O Control Threshold Value 55Set Storage I/O Control Threshold Value in the vSphere Web Client 56
8 Managing Resource Pools 59
Why Use Resource Pools? 60Create a Resource Pool 61Create a Resource Pool in the vSphere Web Client 62Edit a Resource Pool 64Edit a Resource Pool in the vSphere Web Client 64Add a Virtual Machine to a Resource Pool 64Add a Virtual Machine to a Resource Pool in the vSphere Web Client 65Remove a Virtual Machine from a Resource Pool 66Remove a Virtual Machine from a Resource Pool in the vSphere Web Client 66Remove a Resource Pool 67Remove a Resource Pool in the vSphere Web Client 67Resource Pool Admission Control 67
9 Creating a DRS Cluster 71
Admission Control and Initial Placement 72Virtual Machine Migration 73DRS Cluster Requirements 75Create a Cluster in the vSphere Web Client 76Edit a Cluster in the vSphere Web Client 77Create a DRS Cluster 77Create a DRS Cluster in the vSphere Web Client 78Set a Custom Automation Level for a Virtual Machine 80Set a Custom Automation Level for a Virtual Machine in the vSphere Web Client 80Disable DRS 81Disable DRS in the vSphere Web Client 82Restore a Resource Pool Tree in the vSphere Web Client 82
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10 Using DRS Clusters to Manage Resources 83
Adding Hosts to a Cluster 83Adding Virtual Machines to a Cluster 86Adding Virtual Machines to a Cluster in the vSphere Web Client 86Removing Virtual Machines from a Cluster 86Removing a Host from a Cluster 87DRS Cluster Validity 90Managing Power Resources 94Using DRS Affinity Rules 100
11 Creating a Datastore Cluster 107
Initial Placement and Ongoing Balancing 108Storage Migration Recommendations 108Create a Datastore Cluster 108Create a Datastore Cluster in the vSphere Web Client 109Enable and Disable Storage DRS 109Enable and Disable Storage DRS in the vSphere Web Client 109Set the Automation Level for Datastore Clusters 110Set the Automation Level for Datastore Clusters in the vSphere Web Client 110Setting the Aggressiveness Level for Storage DRS 111Datastore Cluster Requirements 113Adding and Removing Datastores from a Datastore Cluster 114
12 Using Datastore Clusters to Manage Storage Resources 115
Using Storage DRS Maintenance Mode 115Applying Storage DRS Recommendations 118Change Storage DRS Automation Level for a Virtual Machine 118Set Up Off-Hours Scheduling for Storage DRS 119Set Up Off-Hours Scheduling for Storage DRS in the vSphere Web Client 120Storage DRS Anti-Affinity Rules 121Clear Storage DRS Statistics 125Clear Storage DRS Statistics in the vSphere Web Client 126Storage vMotion Compatibility with Datastore Clusters 127
13 Using NUMA Systems with ESXi 129
What is NUMA? 129How ESXi NUMA Scheduling Works 130VMware NUMA Optimization Algorithms and Settings 131Resource Management in NUMA Architectures 132Using Virtual NUMA 132Specifying NUMA Controls 134
14 Advanced Attributes 139
Set Advanced Host Attributes 139Set Advanced Host Attributes in the vSphere Web Client 140Set Advanced Virtual Machine Attributes 143Set Advanced Virtual Machine Attributes in the vSphere Web Client 143
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Latency Sensitivity 144
15 Fault Definitions 145
Virtual Machine is Pinned 146Virtual Machine not Compatible with any Host 146VM/VM DRS Rule Violated when Moving to another Host 146Host Incompatible with Virtual Machine 146Host has Virtual Machine that Violates VM/VM DRS Rules 146Host has Insufficient Capacity for Virtual Machine 146Host in Incorrect State 146Host has Insufficient Number of Physical CPUs for Virtual Machine 147Host has Insufficient Capacity for Each Virtual Machine CPU 147The Virtual Machine is in vMotion 147No Active Host in Cluster 147Insufficient Resources 147Insufficient Resources to Satisfy Configured Failover Level for HA 147No Compatible Hard Affinity Host 147No Compatible Soft Affinity Host 147Soft Rule Violation Correction Disallowed 147Soft Rule Violation Correction Impact 148
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About vSphere Resource Management
vSphere Resource Management describes resource management for VMware ESXi and vCenter Serverenvironments.
This documentation focuses on the following topics.
n Resource allocation and resource management concepts
n Virtual machine attributes and admission control
n Resource pools and how to manage them
n Clusters, vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), vSphere Distributed Power Management(DPM), and how to work with them
n Datastore clusters, Storage DRS, Storage I/O Control, and how to work with them
n Advanced resource management options
n Performance considerations
Intended AudienceThis information is for system administrators who want to understand how the system manages resources andhow they can customize the default behavior. Its also essential for anyone who wants to understand and useresource pools, clusters, DRS, datastore clusters, Storage DRS, Storage I/O Control, or vSphere DPM.
This documentation assumes you have a working knowledge of VMware ESXi and of vCenter Server.
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Getting Started with ResourceManagement 1
To understand resource management, you must be aware of its components, its goals, and how best toimplement it in a cluster setting.
Resource allocation settings for a virtual machine (shares, reservation, and limit) are discussed, including howto set them and how to view them. Also, admission control, the process whereby resource allocation settingsare validated against existing resources is explained.
Resource management is the allocation of resources from resource providers to resource consumers.
The need for resource management arises from the overcommitment of resourcesthat is, more demand thancapacity and from the fact that demand and capacity vary over time. Resource management allows you todynamically reallocate resources, so that you can more efficiently use available capacity.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n Resource Types, on page 9
n Resource Providers, on page 9
n Resource Consumers, on page 10
n Goals of Resource Management, on page 10
Resource TypesResources include CPU, memory, power, storage, and network resources.
NOTE ESXi manages network bandwidth and disk resources on a per-host basis, using network traffic shapingand a proportional share mechanism, respectively.