values - what holds meaning to you?
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Group: The Connectomes Ane Erjavec Alex Khosrov Grgorian Karolina Havlikova Jeanna Nikolov-Ramrez Gaviria
Mei:CogSci Comenius University Bratislava Supervisor: Martin Taka
Cog. Semantics & Cog. Theories of Representation:
Dec 10th, 2015
What holds meaning to you ?
Theoretical Introduction (20 min)
Practical Part: Values Auction (40 min)
Discussion (30 min)
CONNECTION TO REPRESENTATION & MEANING What we value is
what holds meaning to us
How we prioritize values reflects our beliefs and principles; builds the framework of our character
Values as neural representations and constitutions of our character
Abstract concept that motivates behaviour (Smith & Schwartz, 1997)
WHAT ARE VALUES?
How well can you predict specific behavior by knowing something about a person's values?
A personal or cultural value is an individual's assumptions of ethical value that can form basis for action.
PERSONAL AND CULTURAL
A value system is a set of consistent values and measures.
A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based.
CONNECTION TO CHARACTER Character: self-aware knowledge that helps the individual to set goals, values, and ethical principles (Cloninger, 2004).
Research from at least three different fields, Cultural (Shweder et al., 1997), Personality (Cloninger, 2004), and Social psychology (Abele and Wojciszke, 2007)
suggest that character can be organized along three broad principles:
1. Agency, which is related to the autonomy and the fulfillment and enhancement of the self;
2. Communion, which is related to engagement in the protection and relations to others such as families, companies or nations;
3. Spirituality, which is related to the human ability to transcend the self and find and interconnection with all life and appreciation of the whole world around us (Haidt, 2006; Cloninger, 2013).
Garcia, D. (2015). Editorial: Character, responsibility, and well-being: influences on mental health and constructive behavior patterns. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1079.
Brain connectivity pattern similarity - the 'positive-negative' axis:
Positive variables - education, better physical endurance and above-average performance on memory tests.
Negative traits - smoking, aggressive behaviour or a family history of alcohol abuse.
CONNECTIONS INSIDE BRAINS
Source: http://www.nature.com/news/wiring-diagrams-link-lifestyle-to-brain-function-1.18442?WT.mc_id=TWT_NatureNews ht
VALUES THEORY AND RESEARCH Anthropology: Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck (1961) - basic existential questions
Sociology: Parsons & Shils (1951) - ease the conflict between individual and collective interests
Values as a window through which one can view conflicts and variations within and between societies
Schwartz: Values reflect three basic requirements of human existence:
needs of individuals as biological organisms,
requisites of coordinated social interaction, and
survival and welfare needs of groups.
ROKEACH VALUE SURVEY Developed an instrument to measure values Compare individual commitment to a set of values Used by numerous researchers to explore many
facets of values:
the relationship between values and behavior the role of values in justifying attitudes the extent to which people remain committed to particular
values over time
TERMINAL VALUES True Friendship Mature Love Self-Respect Happiness Inner Harmony Equality Freedom Pleasure Social Recognition Wisdom Salvation Family Security National Security A Sense of Accomplishment A World of Beauty A World at Peace A Comfortable Life An Exciting Life
Cheerfulness Ambition Love Cleanliness Self-Control Capability Courage Politeness Honesty Imagination Independence Intellect Broad-Mindedness Logic Obedience Helpfulness Responsibility Forgiveness
Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press. Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values: A theory of organization and change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Johnston, Charles S. (1995). The Rokeach Value Survey: Underlying structure and multidimensional scaling. Journal of Psychology, 129(5), 583-597. 10/2
THE SCHWARTZ SCALE OF VALUES
Major evolution of the Rokeach Values Survey
Values arrayed along two general dimensions
Figure 1. Structural rela/ons among ten mo/va/onal types of values, Schwartz (1997) 11/2
WORLD VALUE SURVEY
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores peoples values
and beliefs, how they change over time
and what social and political
impact they have. It is carried out by a worldwide network of social scientists who, since 1981, have conducted representative national surveys in almost 100 countries.
WORLD VALUE SURVEY 2 Global network of social scientists studying changing values and
their impact on social and political life
Largest investigation of human beliefs and values ever executed Nationally representative surveys using a common questionnaire Economic and technological changes are transforming the basic
values and motivations
Conducted in six waves so far (1981-2014) Demonstrated: peoples beliefs play a key role in economic
development, the emergence and flourishing of democratic institutions, the rise of gender equality, and the extent to which societies have effective government!
INGLEHART-WELZEL CULTURAL MAP Two major dimensions of cross cultural variation in the world:
Traditional Values vs Secular-rational Values Survival Values vs Self-expression Values
Traditional values: importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values
Secular-rational: less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority
Survival: emphasis on economic and physical security
Self-expression: high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, homosexuals and gender equality etc.
CULTURAL MAP WAVE 6: 2010-2014
COMPANYCORE VALUES http://www.visualcapitalist.com/core-values-of-americas-top-7-tech-firms/
Ethics Innovation Excellence Simplicity Self-Improvement Freedom Fairness/Generosity Openness Respect Etc.
REFERENCES Kluckhohn, Florence R., and Fred L. Strodtbeck (1961) Variations in Value Orientations. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Parsons, Talcott, and Edward A. Shils (1951) "Values, Motives, and Systems of Action." In T. Parsons and E. A. Shils, eds., Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.
Rokeach, Milton (1973) The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.
Smith, Peter B., and Shalom Schwartz (1997) "Values," In: W. Berry, M. H. Segall, and C. Kagitcibasi, eds., Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 3. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Schwartz, Shalom H. (1992) "Universals in the Content and Structure ofValues: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries." Advances in Experimental Social' Psychology 25:1-65.
Kirschenbaum, H. (1992). A comprehensive model for values education and moral education. Phi Delta Kappan, 771-776.
WHAT FUNCTION DO VALUES HOLD? Values are those inner standards from which you receive the
motivation to act as you do and by which you judge behavior (both yours and others).
Values signify what is important and worthwhile. They serve as the basis for moral codes and ethical reflection.
Individuals have their own values based on many aspects including family, religion, peers, culture, race, social background, gender, etc.
Values guide individuals, professions, communities, and institutions.
HOW TO IDENTIFY VALUES?
1. A value must be chosen freely.
2. A value is always chosen from among alternatives.
3. A value results from a choice made after thoughtful consideration of choices
4. When you value something, it has a positive quality for you. If your decision not to cheat is something you feel good about, then it is based on a value. You like yourself for your honesty and integrity. You prize them and cherish these qualities in yourself.