Using Case Studies in Drama/Theatre Teacher Education: A Process of Bridge Building between Theory and Practice

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This article was downloaded by: [Tufts University]On: 08 October 2014, At: 08:39Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UKYouth Theatre JournalPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: Case Studies in Drama/Theatre TeacherEducation: A Process of Bridge Building betweenTheory and PracticeLaura A. McCammon , Carole Miller & Joe NorrisPublished online: 08 Jul 2010.To cite this article: Laura A. McCammon , Carole Miller & Joe Norris (1997) Using Case Studies in Drama/Theatre TeacherEducation: A Process of Bridge Building between Theory and Practice, Youth Theatre Journal, 11:1, 103-112, DOI:10.1080/08929092.1997.10012486To link to this article: SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. 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Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at Case Studies in DramdTheatre Teacher Education: A Process of Bridge Building between Theory and Practice Laura A. McCammon, Carole Miller, and Joe N o h When Ifirst entered the drama room [as I began my student teaching], I hoped I was prepared. I had my lesson plans that I had spent the week- end honing and shaping; I had my unit plans for the entire three months. . . . I had imagined time spent on deep insights, exciting discussions, and guided reflections periods. . . . I wasn 't prepared. I was faced with thirty- two "yakaholics" who didn't give a wit about "deepening their experi- ence" or "bringing their own understanding of the world" to the drama class. There were thirty-two chatterboxes halfof whom only took drama because wood-working was full, or because you had to know how to draw to take art, or because drama was an effortless way to get credit in something. (From "The Class that Wouldn't Stop Talking," a case study written by a drama student teacher.) Teacher education is divided not only by the perceived difference between theory and practice, but also by geography. Theory is perceived to take place in teacher education institutions, while practice takes place in the schools. This sep- aration, whether perceived or real, can keep all stakeholders isolated. As a result, teacher educators, student teachers, and cooperating teachers do not always have the opportunity to reflect with and learn from one another. There is a strong need to provide greater opportunities for dialogue among all parties, especially if there is a desire to have a coherent teacher education program. The need for student teachers to have experiences in collaborative comrnuni- ties is doubly true for those involved in dramaltheatre teacher education. Theatre practitioners need to collaborate. Playwrights, directors, actors, designers, and technicians work together to produce a common work. Yet, ironically, theatre ed- ucation students often report feeling little connection to either the theatre depart- ment or the faculty of education (Dynak 235-37). Problems often result from the perceived gap between theory and practice that plagues pre-service student cul- tures and the lack of experience that most college of education faculty have with arts education students. Infrastructures need to be found which place teacher ed- ucators, cooperating teachers,' and student teachers as co-partners in this learn- ing process. If pre-service teachers are to learn to teach in a collaborative way, the manner in which they are taught must reflect processes of inclusion and com- Laura McCammon is Assistant Professor and Theatre Education Specialist at the Univer- sity of Arizona in Tucson. Carole Miller is an Assistant Professor at the University of Vic- toria in the Faculty of Education where she teaches both elementary and secondary dramahheatre in education courses. Joe Norris is an Associate Professor at the University of Alberta teaching courses in Drama Education and Cumculum Theory. Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 104 Laura A. McCammon, Carole Miller, and Joe Norris munity building. The reading and writing of case studies of practicum experi- ences is one such process that can not only promotepraxis, the integration of the- ory and practice, but can also assist in bridging this gap through collegial dia- logue. Lee Shulman first advocated in 1986 the use of cases as teaching tools in teacher preparation. Judith Shulman, in the introduction to her book Case Meth- ods in Teacher Education, summarizes his arguments: Case knowledge-a potentially codifiable body of knowledge convey- ing the wisdom of practice-is as essential to the knowledge base of teaching as is the knowledge of principles derived from educational re- search. Case-based teaching provides teachers with opportunities to an- alyze situations and make judgments in the messy world of practice, where principles often appear to conflict with one another and no simple solution is possible. (xiv) Case study methods in teacher education have gradually gained wider accep- tance. Cases can provide instances of exemplary practice (Cooper 7), thereby let- ting pre-service and in-service teachers experience and discuss the integration of theory and practice. Some cases can also carry "no presumptions that the case it- self illustrates either exemplary or ineffectual practice" (Mereseth 2). According to Barnett and Tyson, these cases then serve as "narratives designed to promote a discussion of significant issues, portray a variety of teaching strategies and philosophies, and highlight the complexity, rationality and flaws in student think- ing" (2). In addition to promoting reflection on practice, cases are often con- structed specifically to promote problem solving discussions of concern to both pre-service and in-service teachers. This project makes use of cases written by the student teachers themselves as they try to analyze and understand their student teaching experiences. Because the cases are written in the first person, they tend to have more power for both the writer and the reader. Miller found that in teacher education classes where narrative case studies are used, spaces are created where lived experiences are shared, uncovered, articulated, interpreted, and reinterpreted. Pre-service teach- ers who experience narrative cases bring to their own practices a polyphony of voices which can enhance early teaching experiences. Teacher educators (e.g., Schubert and Ayers; Connelly and Clandinin) attest to the transformative power of teachers' stories for both the participants and others. These particular narra- tives and the processes used to produce them highlight the value of using case study narratives during peer teaching and student teaching activities. A HISTORY Initially, Joe Norris, struggling with a way to answer student teachers' "What- do-you-do-when-this-happens?'questions, began using Shulman and Mesa- Baines' case study book Diversity in the Classroom: A Casebook for Teachers and Teacher Educators in his drama methods class at the University of Alberta. His students read and discussed these cases, wrote critiques of them, and used Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 USING CASES 105 them as exemplars in the writing of their own case studies. Norris found these cases to be an excellent means of integrating theory and practice as students an- alyzed their own experiences. Case writing further assisted the students in be- coming reflective practitioners (Schon) by providing a tool for self-examination. They also produced valuable data for class discussions. The success of Norris' case study project led two other professors, Carole Miller and Laura McCammon, to begin sharing the cases with their students at the University of Victoria and the University of Arizona. These three teacher ed- ucators used the pool of cases as reading and discussion requirements for present methods students. The methods students were asked to write critiques of a case, drawing implications to guide their own future practice. They were also invited to include these reflections as companion pieces to accompany the first draft of the case book, Learning to Teach Drama: A Case Study Book, which would also be read by future student~.~ The drama case book was modelled on the work of Judith Shulman (Shulman and Mesa-Baines). In Shulman's work, intern or first- year teachers developed cases based on their experiences. Responses to these cases were then contributed by administrators, other teachers in the school, and teacher educators, leaving the reader with multiple perspectives on the issues in each case. Responses to the drama student teacher's cases are currently being so- licited from methods students or other student teachers, cooperating teachers, and teacher educators. ISSUES PRESENTED IN THE CASES Nearly thirty cases are included in the current draft of the case study book. Al- though it is beyond the scope of this paper to describe all the cases collected thus far, an example of one of the cases can prove useful. In "The Class that Wouldn't Stop Talking," quoted at the beginning of this paper, the student teacher, faced with a large "chatty" group of ninth grade stu- dents, described the various strategies she tried to focus the students. She gave them rules: "(1) No one speaks twice until everyone speaks once; and (2) No put downs." She tried silent activities, trust activities, and finally got them focused for the moment with a rain forest exercise where the students tried to create the sounds of the rain forest. Several days passed, and the student teacher still strug- gled to keep the students focused. Finally, she had the students create their own rules and consequences if the rules were broken: It took a long time-most of the period-and they complained wildly, but we did start to get somewhere. We wrote the rules and consequences on a long sheet of paper. One of these rules was "no put downs." If someone puts another person down, they had to stand up and sincerely tell the person three things they like about that person. This became a time-consuming practice, but I think it was useful. And, of course, there were always the exploiters who put people down constantly in order to slow the class down. Despite the problems with this group, the student teacher realized that some very Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 106 Laura A. McCammon, Carole Miller, and Joe Norris good work came out of the class, even though she lamented the time lost trying to keep all members of the group "in check." A particularly successful part of the class was a playbuilding session they did together: Although they started, having brainstormed first, with the idea of a mod- ern teenage comedy, what they really ended up wanting to say was that being a teenager was difficult and confusing and full of pressures and worries. The student teacher found that the personal stories of the students held their at- tention and involved them in the drama. It was when she tried to expand the play to other issues that she ran into trouble: Where I tended to lose them was when I started to get them to explore "teen problems." Although they enjoyed the library research on such topics as AIDS, Teen Pregnancy, Teen Crime, etc., the topics were too broad, too imposed by me, and too removed from them. But I was in deep at this point. I needed help. I talked with my sponsor teacher, "Keep it simple;" my methods teacher, "Make it relate to their own lives;" and a visiting professor at the university, "Find a folding frame." I incorporated this good advice as best I could and had the students ex- plore teen pregnancy in terms of their own lives. The student teacher found that virtually all of the students knew or knew of someone who was affected by teen pregnancy. She was surprised at how ab- sorbed some of the boys in the class became in the work. The performance of this play was disrupted by students "throwing balls of paper onto the stage and clapping inappropriately backstage." The student teacher reminded the class of the purpose of the trust exercises they had done, and the disruptive students wrote apologies to the class. In the analysis and reflection portion of the case, the student teacher dscusses what she learned from this "crazy grade 9 group": I learned that listening and trust building is best when it comes out of the drama itself instead of being forced on students. I learned how I needed to trust my own thinking and to not be afraid to be severe sometimes. I realized that although planning must be tight, one can't be attached to it. I learned that what is most important to the students-really impor- tant-must be milked and used; I learned not to impose ideas from the outside unless they connect to the student's ideas. Perhaps the most im- portant thing I learned from this experience is that I truly like young people. . . . And I think the most important thing I had confirmed for myself from this process of student teaching is that drama can be a link between that creative force in all of us and what needs to be told. There are differences in the theatre education programs in the three universi- ties using the cases-in one the methods course and practicum are included in one semester, and in the other two the methods course and student teaching practicum are in different semesters. Furthermore, student teachers have been placed in public and private schools in two different countries. And yet, regard- Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 USING CASES 107 less of these differences, the cases collectively highlight the same major concerns of student teachers. They are concerned about their own content knowledge, how to evaluate that subject maintaining both concern for standards and their stu- dents, classroom management, and the degree to which they are permitted to de- velop their own voices in someone else's classroom. The cases also demonstrate ways in which student teachers construct and co-construct meanings. The stories improve the understanding and expand perspectives of dramdtheatre teaching and learning by providing examples for dialogue on "best practice." STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CASES Students are first introduced to the cases in the methods class. While each case does contain multiple issues, the cases have been organized to fit topics that might appear in a drama methods class. Some of the subject headings include the following: Planning and Presenting Lessons, The Process versus Product Dilemma, Knowing the Students, Working with Individuals, Working with Groups (Classroom Management), Drama in the School Curriculum, The Stu- dent Teaching Experience, and Starting Out. Issues such as gender, classroom management, lesson planning, and the interrelationship of process and product in a dramdtheatre classroom informed the content pedagogy on which the dramdtheatre methods curriculum was built. Because these cases presented ex- amples which came from the lived experience of students' peers, they were also ideally suited to promote discussion and reflection in preparation for the student teaching practicum. "The Class that Wouldn't Stop Talking" is included in a section on establish- ing the rules under classroom management, but the study of the case could eas- ily fit into many other categories such as planning and implementing a collective drama, motivating students, working with beginners, or adaptability and flexibil- ity in the classroom. A classroom discussion on this case might revolve around these questions: 1. What are the central issues in this case? 2. What, if anything, should anyone do? 3. What did the teacher actually do? 4. How do you think this situation appears to other participants-stu- dents, the superintendent, parents, the school board? 5. How did this situation develop? What, if anything, might alter the basic conditions that created the present difficulties? 6. What, if anything, have you learned from this case? (Kleinfield 4 2 4 3 ) The methods students might then be invited to write their own analytical re- sponses to this case, applying what they learned here to their own future prac- tices. To provide conclusions for the stories themselves violates the theoretical underpinnings of the narrative. Meanings are co-constructed by the writer and each reader. The role of the teacher educator is to provide a frame accessible to the reader-NOT to form conclusions. The cases, furthermore, never become the final word. In the cases, students are able to see diverse but valid opinions re- Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 108 Laura A. McCarnmon, Carole Miller, and Joe Nonis garding the teaching of drama. They are provided an opportunity to perceive teaching as a poly-ocular endeavor (Maruyama 103-13) where many different perspectives are found and valued. This opportunity could assist them in their own decision-making during student teaching and beyond, as they would have various perspectives from which to choose. In the next phase, student teachers developed cases about an experience that startled, challenged, perplexed, or changed them in some way during student teaching. By writing a case describing a series of incidents, using drama educa- tion theory and class discussions to analyze or interpret what took place, and ap- plying their new insights to future practice, the students became both consumers and producers of teacher knowledge. Students are also examining their own teacher beliefs and philosophies. Finally, these cases, when shared with both pre-service and in-service teach- ers, created a dialogue about the nature of dramdtheatre education and built a community of pre-service dramdtheatre educators. Approximately sixty cases have been documented over a three year period. Norris, Miller and McCarnmon have analyzed and coded the cases according to the emerging themes. Like good action research, the project is on-going and endless. The teacher educators are committed to using student written narratives in their courses and to listen to those voices in the revision of their program and to the study itself. ADVANTAGES OF THE CASE STUDY METHOD Norris, Miller, and McCamrnon have found four distinct advantages in this process so far. First, campus discussions on the practice of teaching are situated within the context the student teachers are about to face. The examples used are deemed relevant as they are the real stories of people who have recently been in similar situations. Although there are texts in such areas as classroom manage- ment, educational psychology and general methods, most focus on theory rather than lived experiences, and few offer good teaching examples for students in the arts. The challenge for tertiary drama theatre educators is to find ways to put pre- service dramahheatre education students in touch with "authentic voices" from the field and to enable student teachers to debate classroom practices in a colle- gial manner. Such activities enable them to learn vicariously through the experi- ences of others. Through reading and discussion, the methods students were able to project their lived experiences and address the dramatic question "What if?" using the context of the case as guide. Second, the cases provide examples of reflective practice which the new stu- dent teachers can emulate as they write case studies during their own field expe- riences. The collection of cases provides them with a variety of possible forms and content. Learning to reflect through the writing of case study narratives be- comes a collaborative venture as the students come to understand that not only is it a valuable tool for self but that reflective practice has value for others. As re- cipients of stories they have a communal obligation to pass on stories of their Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 USING CASES 109 own. It situates the reader and the writer within the immediacy of the here and now, helping students to understand and begin to make sense of the school world. The case study project also reinforces the responsibility one has to the greater collaborative reflective community, a major tenet of education. The building of a community of reflective theatre practitioners takes the improvement of self to an- other level. Third, as responses to specific cases by cooperating teachers are added, a new form of dialogue between the schools and the universities can begin. Rather than debating educational practices in the immediacy of practicum experiences, meth- ods instructors and cooperating teachers can use discussions of the case studies as a forum to discuss each other's beliefs regarding the teaching of drama. The cases provide a healthy distance, as the parties discuss a "foreign" scenario rather than one they both have in common. The cases can help individuals in schools and in universities understand each other's perspectives through the mediation of a case. This new dimension validates the voices of the major stakeholders. The fourth missing voice is that of the drama students themselves and may be intro- duced in later stages. Fourth, cooperating teachers' and student teachers' voices provide excellent feedback to those teacher educators who desire to use practicum experiences as a form of data to determine the knowledge, skills, and attributes required for a beginning dramdtheatre teacher. With such data they can update course materi- als and activities and begin the integration of theory and practice on campus prior to the practicum experience. The cases are a bridge by which all parties can meet, discuss, mediate and change dramdtheatre education. It must be noted that although the cases are narratives, written by student teachers as they make meaning in the context of the practicum, all responses are from individuals who do not know the case writer. Immediacy and distance are both problematic; however, it is believed that the distance does not privilege a re- spondent over a reader who is aware of additional details. The value, in fact, does not lie completely with the case or the responses. It is the juxtaposition of vari- ous points of view which enable a reader to make decisions informed by many voices. The polyphony of narratives provide various and perhaps conflicting in- sights into the process of teaching. Collectively, they are exemplars of reflective practice as they portray many individuals making sense of what it means to teach drama. Barone (305-26) claims that narratives enable writer and reader to conspire for a practical utopia or places where better than current practice can be achieved. All the cases generated in this study in their entirety and each case sin- gularly encourage teacher education communities to devise better classrooms for teachers and their students. They provide a platform for discussion on issues such as classroom management, evaluation, integration of the arts with other subjects, finding one's emergent teaching voice, and teaching strategies that can be effec- tive in certain settings. As each context differs, so does the story; therefore the contribution of cases is endless. Donmoyer (175-200) claims that it is the reader who makes the research generalizable through the decision-making process of Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 1 10 Laura A. McCammon, Carole Miller, and Joe Noms what is relevant to the reader's particular context. The stories expand our curric- ular understanding by providing more exemplars to the field. BENEFITS FROM THE STUDENT'S PERSPECTIVE While the dramaitheatre teacher educators have found this case study project to be a significant educational tool, the students, who wrote cases and responses, also attest to the usefulness of this strategy. Reflective comments by the partici- pants indicate that this case study project was instrumental in transforming the dramattheatre professional along the continuum of teacher preparation, thereby creating a community of educators with the potential to improve educational practice. As one pre-service teacher noted: Writing my own case study, although stressful, was beneficial, as it forced me to confront many issues I had faced in my practicum. I am not sure that I would have taken the time to do so otherwise. It is a bit in- timidating that others may read and critique my performance, but I hope my experiences will help them. Another student notes how the cases helped bring home the real world of class- rooms: I found that commenting on the case studies was a very valuable assign- ment for many reasons. First, I was interested in hearing about some real life situations that student teachers went through. Hearing the stories from people who are in the same boat as me brought the whole experi- ence a little closer to home. One cannot help but think, "That could have been me. What would I have done differently in the same situation?" Second, I got a real sense of what the students are like in today's class- rooms. Finally, commenting on the cases helped to confirm that I do know how to teach drama. Knowing that I am capable of diagnosing a problem and thinking of a possible solution helps to boost my confi- dence in my own teaching abilities. I now realize the importance of rec- ognizing potential problems as soon as possible and dealing with them as effectively as possible because the consequences of making the wrong decisions can cause a lot of anxiety to all parties involved. What I found most interesting about the case studies was how confident most of the student teachers were when they first walked into their classrooms and how that changed when they were faced with the real test-teaching the students. The following student found that the cases seemed to revolve around some of the same ideas: It was interesting to note how, in discussing the cases, we returned again and again to the same central issues. The most important of these in- clude proper planning, an adequate knowledge of the class population, setting classroom rules, boundaries, and appropriate consequences, safety, classroom management, the degree of reliance on the sponsor teacher, choice of approach in work, and drama advocacy within the school. This is all excellent preparation for my practicum. Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 USING CASES 11 1 Reading and discussing the cases reassured some of the methods students who were preparing to student teach themselves: Reading these case studies made me question what I might do in a sim- ilar situation and above all, reminded me of how the practicum experi- ence is a learning laboratory-we don't have to be perfect going in, everyone makes mistakes. What I learn is what counts. Above all, many students were grateful for the opportuility to read cases by students who came before them and considered these stepping stones to practice as "gifts" to ease their entry into the profession. They were more than willing to do the same for those who would follow. As one pre-service teacher noted: Responding to case studies changes the dynamics of the methods class. Instead of being students, we are teachers, analyzing and problem solv- ing with our colleagues: those of us who write about their classroom ex- perience and those of us who respond to these experiences. Just re- sponding to a case study gave me a sense of community with my fellow student teachers. I will learn from their cases and they will learn from mine. The authors welcome the participation of other teacher educators and inter- ested parties in this project. Copies of the current draft of the case book can be obtained from Laura A. McCammon, Dept. of Theatre Arts, PO. Box 210003, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 -0003 or mccammon NOTES ' Many names are used to define a teacher with whom a student teacher is placed for a practicum. This paper will use the term "cooperating teacher." The students gave permission for their cases and commentaries to be included in the case book. WORKS CITED Barnett, Came, and Pamela A. Tyson. "Case Methods and Teacher Change: Shifting Au- thority to Build Autonomy." AERA Convention, April, 1993. Barone, Thomas E. "Using the Narrative Text as an Occasion for Conspiracy." Qualita- tive Inquiry in Education. Ed. Elliot W. Eisner and Allen Peshkin. New York: Teacher College Press, 1990. 305-26. Cooper, J.M. Teachers 'Problem Solving: A Casebook of Award- Winning Teaching Cases. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon, 1995. Connelly, E. M., and Clandinin, D. Jean. Teachers as Curriculum Planners: Narratives of Experience. Toronto: OISE Press, 1988. Donmoyer, Robert. "Generalizability and the Single-Case Study." Qualitative Inquiry in Education. Ed. Elliot W. Eisner and Allen Peshkin. New York: Teachers College Press, 1990 175-200. Dynak, Dave. "Profiles of Preservice Theatre Teacher Education Programs at Three American Universities." Diss. Michigan State University, 1994. Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 1 12 Laura A. McCammon, Carole Miller, and Joe Noms Kleinfield, Judith. "Learning to Think Like a Teacher: The Study of Cases." Case Meth- ods in Teacher Education. Ed. Judith Shulman. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992.3349. Maruyama, Magoroh. "Hierachists, Individualists and Mutualists." Futures. 6.2 (1974): 103-1 1. Merseth, K. "The Case for Cases in Teacher Education." Washington, DC: American As- sociation of Higher Education and the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1991. Miller, J. L. Creating Spaces and Finding Voices: Teachers Collaborating for Empower- ment. Albany, NY State U of New York P, 1992. Schon, D. The Reflective Practitioner. New York: Basic Books, 1982. Schubert, W. and Ayers, W. Teacher Lore: Learning from our own Experience. New York: Longman, 1992. Shulman, Judith. ed. Case Methods in Teacher Education. New York: Teacher's College Press, 1992. Shulman, Judith and Mesa-Baines, A. Diversity in the Classroom: A Casebook for Teach- ers and Teacher Educators. Hillsdale, NJ: Research for Better Schools and Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1993. Shulman, Lee. "Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching." Educational Researcher 19.6 (1986): 11-15. Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014 Youth Theatre Journal Published by The American Alliance for Theatre & Education Artists and Educators Serving Young People EDITORS Robert Colby, Emerson College Jeanne Klein, University of Kansas EDITORIAL Roger Bedard, Arizona State University BOARD Charles Combs, Berklee College of Music Jane Gangi, Sacred Heart University Sharon Grady, Universio, of Texas at Austin Debra Hundert, Brock University & Crossley Secondary School Floraine Kay, New York Jonathan Levy, SUNY at Stony Brook Karen Libman, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Laura McCammon, University of Arizona Carole Miller, University of Victoria Joe Norris, University of Alberta Lawrence O'Farrell, Queens University Doug Paterson, University of Omaha Johnny Saldafia, Arizona State University Juliana Saxton, University of Victoria Lowell Swortzell, New York University Nancy Swortzell, New York University Philip Taylor, Grlffith University Robert Taylor, Arizona State University West Jean Wolski, Eastern Illinois University The American Alliance for Theatre & Education Department of Theatre, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-2002. (602) 965-6064 President: Susan Pearson-Davis, University of New Mexico; President Elect: Gretta Berghammer, University of Northern Iowa; First Vice President: Holly Giffin, Mt. Alto Institute; Second Vice President: Carmine Tabone, Educational Arts Team; Secretary: Kat Matassarin, Northeastern Illinois University; Treasurer: Joe Juliano, Jr., Hamden Public Schools; Past President: Laura Gardner Salazar, Grand Valley State University; Network Council Coordinator: Judy Matetzschk, Zachary Scott Theatre; Project Group Coordinator: Kathleen Blum, Western Michigan University. Executive Director: Barbara Salisbury Wills Administrative Director: Christy M. Taylor Downloaded by [Tufts University] at 08:39 08 October 2014


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