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5 minute discussion  How does your school approach inclusion and diversity ?  What experience have you had of equality issues in your school?  What stereotypes (attitudes, behaviour, expectations, etc) have you experienced in school? How does your school acknowledge and challenge stereotypes?  What potential do you see in your own subject(s) for challenging stereotypes / promoting gender equality? 3


Understanding and promoting inclusion, equality and diversity Race, Gender and addressing homophobia in schools Objectives Develop your understanding of inclusion Develop your understanding of gender and stereotype Develop your ability to address equality through teaching understanding of LGBT issues in schools, and to equip you with skills and understanding so that you can contribute to promoting equality on LGBT issues It will also provide information about a schools duty to challenge LGBT discrimination and bullying Challenging stereotypes Promoting education as an agent of social justice / social change 2 5 minute discussion How does your school approach inclusion and diversity ? What experience have you had of equality issues in your school? What stereotypes (attitudes, behaviour, expectations, etc) have you experienced in school? How does your school acknowledge and challenge stereotypes? What potential do you see in your own subject(s) for challenging stereotypes / promoting gender equality? 3 Discussion points. 1. What do you understand by race? 2. What do you understand by diversity? 3. What do you understand by inclusion? Trainee Teachers: Race, inclusion and diversity - University of Southampton Race was defined in terms of Ethnicity (57%) Ethnic background of a person Origins (28%) where your ancestors come from Culture (18%) cultural heritage or background Inclusion was defined in terms of Include (46%) including all whatever the differences are. Accessible (45%) Ensuring that all have access to an education regardless of SEN, race,gender, ethnicity and sexuality Equality(28%) Equal opportunity regardless of background-together Not exclude (20%) process and practice to ensure that people are not unjustly excluded from any aspect of education Diversity was defined in terms of Difference (52%) the differences between groups, individual or cultures that make them unique Variety (45%) the variety of individuals in the school (race, ability, SEN etc). Ethnicity (32%) the range of races or ethnicities within a specific group Relevance and importance In the University of Southampton study, trainee teachers were asked how important they feel it is to learn about race, inclusion and diversity in relation to other aspects of learning to be a teacher. Very important (47%) Important (35%) Quite important (18%) Promoting Cohesion, Challenging Expectations -Educating the teachers of tomorrow for race equality and diversity in 21st century schools research report from MMU Newly qualified teachers tend to feel relatively ill-prepared to engage with pupils of BME (Black and Minority Ethnic) heritage or to respond to potentially challenging issues related to race equality in schools. School attainment for BME students A picture of marked inequality (Gillborne and Mirza) pupils of African-Caribbean, Pakistani and Bangladeshi heritage are markedly less likely to attain 5 higher grade GCSEs than their White and Indian peers nationally Pupils of African-Caribbean heritage and Pakistani heritage have drawn the least benefit from the rising levels of attainment: the gap between them and their white peers had grown over a decade African-Caribbean heritage pupils position worsened (often significantly) as they went through school, compared to their white peers. There is more inequality in attainment between ethnic groups after their time in compulsory education than there is at entry to school. Bhattacharyya,Ison and Blair 2003 Black Caribbean pupils are about 3 times more likely than white pupils to be permanently excluded from school, and there are proportionately more Black Caribbean and Black Other pupils in PRUs Qualitative research (in primary and secondary schools) has consistently highlighted ways in which Black pupils are stereotyped and face additional barriers to academic success Explanations through suggestions that Black pupils are more likely to become alienated from school are not borne out by research, which suggests that the opposite is true. And that this is a stereotype The data does not support the idea that speaking another language of itself is a barrier to achievement in school Bilingual learners are in the highest-scoring groups (Indian and Chinese heritage) Bilingual learners tend to advance more quickly than monolingual peers Key question: What is gender? Where does gender come from? How is gender created? What is a stereotype? How do schools contribute? 13 SEX is biological GENDER - is a social construct GENDER describes the characteristics that a culture or society delineates as normal masculine or feminine behaviour 14 DISCUSSION how does our society allocate behaviours and attitudes to girls / boys and men/ women? What behaviours are promoted for girls? What behaviours are not considered appropriate for girls? And for boys? Creating gender roles 15 16 17 Which gender would you associate these behaviours with? rational, stretching, aggressive, competitive, scientific, active, independent, emotional, fragile, caring, co-operative, passive, dependent, challenging, well-behaved, enquiring, demanding, helpful, strong, motivated, hardworking, patient, expressive, kind, gentle, reliable, eager to please, emotional, funny, beautiful, nice, active, sporty, sensitive, clean, 18 Gender in schools - which gender are these school subjects associated with? English, MFL, physics, chemistry, biology, maths, ICT, football, netball, basketball, rounders, hockey, drama, history, geography, music, RE, A&D, sociology, psychology, PSHE, 19 The problem with stereotypes Place restrictions on peoples lives Underpin prejudice and discrimination Lock boys and girls into predetermined behaviour and oblige them to make choices based on pressure to conform Involve policing of behaviour outside the norm 20 The effect of stereotypes Gender inequality is very real in society Men earn more than women, and the gender pay gap is growing Men occupy more positions of decision-making and power They are less tied to households and childrearing There are few women in science and engineering, fewer men in nursing and teaching 21 And in schools Young girls in primary school are concerned about body weight and physical appearance Girls as young as 12 feel under pressure to be sexually available Boys feel under pressure to make sexual demands Girls and boys are pressured into making gendered choices, rather than free choices 22 Points to consider: how do we contribute to the creation of gender roles? Teacher expectations of behaviour Teacher interactions Materials, resources and activities in the classroom Teachers as role models 23 Physics teacher 24 But arent boys underachieving? Yes but the picture is complex Not all girls do better than all boys social class and race indicators also play a role The media reports the gender achievement gap as bigger than it is The biggest achievement gap is social class 25 Boys have scored lower marks than girls for many years But now girls are getting higher marks in boys subjects This is an advance we should be celebrating but is it represented as being at the expense of boys achievements? Career-choices and A Level choices are still heavily gendered 26 The problem with strategies aimed only at boys attainment Tend to stress stereotypes for both boys and girls Obscure the needs of girls Give boys mixed messages 27 Education for the future Preparing pupils for a future in which their behaviour is not dominated by gendered stereotypes Where each individual is free to pursue the life they want, without fear of not living up to expectations or pressure to conform where women can choose not to get married and have children where men can choose not to have highly competitive jobs and stay at home with the children where girls feel comfortable being assertive and where boys are allowed to cry 28 29 LGBT Lesbian: a woman whose enduring physical, romantic and/or emotional attraction is to other women. Gay: used to refer to a man or woman whose sexual orientation is attraction to persons of the same sex and/or gender Bisexual: a person who finds themselves attracted to persons from both genders Transgender: term for people whose gender identity differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. This does not refer to sexual orientation Homophobia / biphobia / transphobia- used to refer to a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender people 30 A brief recent history 1988: passing of the Local Government Act with the notorious Clause 28: a local authority "shall not intentionally promote homosexuality or publish material with the intention of promoting homosexuality" or "promote the teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship Repealed in Stonewall School Report 2007 for the first time, research exposed that homophobia was endemic in schools two thirds of lesbian, gay and bisexual young people reported experiencing homophobic bullying at school and only a quarter of schools were saying that such bullying was wrong. 32 THE EDUCATION AND INSPECTIONS ACT 2006: every school must have measures to encourage good behaviour and prevent all forms of bullying amongst pupils THE EQUALITY ACT 2010: schools must not discriminate on the grounds of race, disability, gender age, sexual orientation, religion or belief, and gender re-assignment. CHILDREN ACT 1989: bullying is a child protection concern 2007 DCSF GUIDANCE: a preventative approach to bullying means that schools safeguard the welfare of their pupilsPreventing and responding to homophobic bullying should be part of these existing strategies. 33 OFSTED Schools need clear, inclusive values that are understood and lived by all members of the school community Schools should ensure that their curriculum systematica


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