unconventional gas: shale gas shale gas  unconventional gas (hydrocarbons) found in subsurface...

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  • Slide 1
  • Unconventional Gas: Shale Gas Shale Gas Unconventional gas (hydrocarbons) found in subsurface shale formations Replacement to coal, oil, and natural gas Clean burning 1,744 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas estimated reserves 110 year supply R.A. Kerr, 2010 and D.O.E., 2009 Shale Gas Basins in the Continental U.S. U.S. Fuel Energy Consumption 2007 Energy dependence in the U.S. Surge in exploration of shale gas in North America Energy dependence in the U.S. Surge in exploration of shale gas in North America
  • Slide 2
  • Gas from Shale Rock? Two phase process Horizontally Drill Hydraulic fracturing (frac) Both processes are water intensive! (>10 million gallons) Both processes are water intensive! (>10 million gallons) Generating large volumes of wastewater as flowback Generating large volumes of wastewater as flowback
  • Slide 3
  • Typical O&G Operation External Source Water WasteStream Waste Stream OPEN SYSYTEM WASTE FRAC TANKS Prepare fracture fluids FRAC PUMPS Pressurize fracture mixture GAS WELL HEAD Horizontal drill and frac DRILL & FRAC WASTE RESERVOIR Store drilling and fracturing waste
  • Slide 4
  • What is Fracturing? Hydraulic fracturing of shale rock Pressurize hydraulic mixture (up to 1,000 psi) Up to 5 fractures per day/crew 2-6 million gallons of water per well
  • Slide 5
  • Fluid Management Fluid Management Source water Local or regional freshwater Drill/Frac wastewater Disposal Deep well injection Costly Environmentally disruptive Recycling Typically settle and decant Only 50-60% water recovery! (at times

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