transfering vitamin c from fish to embryos
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DESCRIPTIONBeneficial effects of ascorbic acid supplementation to broodstock of a select aquaculture species is well documented. At the present levels of feeding, dietary means of vitamin C does not meet the requirements for maturation, reproduction and needs of early life stages of larvae.
- 1. May | June 2012Feature title: Transfering Vitamin C from fishto embryos International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
2. FEATUREVitamin CTransferingfrom fish to embryosby Nagaraj G. Chatakondi PhD, National Warmwater Aquaculture Center, USAB eneficial effects of ascorbic acid conventional methods, hence innovative ductive performance, and may subsequently supplementation to broodstock of approaches are needed. Mass transfer ofimprove ontogeny performance. a select aquaculture species is well nutrients via injection into broodstock is a However, the effect of vitamin C dimin- documented. At the present levelsnovel method.ished with age and also in more natural condi-of feeding, dietary means of vitamin C doesTwo routes of maternal transfer of vitamintions. Our goal was to achieve predictablenot meet the requirements for maturation, C in mature channel catfish (Ictalurus punc- fish production of robust quality for healthy,reproduction and needs of early life stages tatus) prior to hormone-induced spawning efficient, higher surviving and able to adapt toof larvae.were explored as a strategy to incorporate common stressors and pathogens.Improvements can be made Table 1: Mass transfer of Vitamin C from broodfish to eggs/embryos in this area by new knowledge-based advances in nutrient deliv-Mass trasferSpecies strategy Dose Reference ery systems that may create largeimprovements in terms of produc-tion, feed conversion and survivalRainbow troutDiet 1000 mg/KgSandness et al. (1984)in aquaculture production.Oncorhynchus mykissTilapiaDiet 1250 mg/KgSoliman et al. (1986)Importance of vitamin COreochromis mossambicus Ascorbic acid is an essentialmicronutrient in the diet of teleost Atlantic CodDiet 500 mg/Kg Mangor-Jensen et al. (1994)fish, which do not have gulonol- Gadus morhuaactone oxidase activity. Vitamin Rainbow trout Diet 500 mg/Kg Blom and Dabrowski (1995) C is needed for post-translato- Oncorhynchus mykissry hydroxylation of proline and Channel catfish Diet 500 mg/Kg Zuberi et al. (2011)lysine moieties in collagen, min-eral metabolism to improve stress Ictalurus punctatusresponse and immunity, detoxifica- Rainbow troutImmersion 1000 mg/L Falhatkar et al. (2006)tion reactions, steroid synthesis and Oncorhynchus mykissvitellogenesis. Rainbow troutImmersion and Diet 1000 and 500 mg/Kg Falhatkar el.al. (2011) Egg ascorbic acid deposition Oncorhynchus mykisslevels may easily be tailored by Japanese eelInjecting broodfish50 mg/KgYoshikawa, 1998feeding broodfish with elevatedlevels of ascorbic acid before and Anguilla japonicaafter vitellogenesis. The accumula- Japanese eelInjecting broodfish 1mL* /Kg Furuita et al. 2009 tion of essential nutrients in eggs Anguilla japonicais dependent on the nutrient Channel catfish Injecting broodfish 1 mL*/Kg Chatakondi et al. 2010reserves in the female fish and Ictalurus punctatustherefore on the dietary intake ofbroodfish in the period preceeding *Vitamin emulsion was prepared by dissolving Sodium Ascorbate in 0.9% NaCl Solutionand during gametogenesis. Hence,broodfish nutrition consisting ofIn addition, this nutrient is water soluble the vitamin and to determine its effect on essential nutrients is important.and readily gets accumulated by other reproduction and progeny performance. The earliest steps in embryonic develop-organs before reaching the ovary. ForThe results of this study suggest injecting ment are dependent on and driven by mater-practical reasons, it is not possible to vitamin C prior to hormone-induce spawning, nal factors deposited in the oocyte duringattain the desired level of a nutrient by invokes transfer to eggs, improves repro- oogenesis. Maternal factors are stored in the8 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012 3. FEATUREform of specific mRNAs, proteins, hormones The fry produced from par-and other biomolecules. At egg activation andents fed with elevated levelsfertilization, these factors become availableof vitamin C tend to havefor embryogenesis, sometimes after a process higher growth performanceof activation involving translation or protein as compared with controlmodification.groups. Thus, there is aIt has been documented that vitamin C or need in enhance ascorbicascorbic acid deficiency in larval fish has been acid in the broodfish. Aassociated with hyperplasia of collagen anddiet with vitamin C contentcartilage, scoliosis, lordosis, internal hemor-adequate for normal growthrhages, resorbed opercules and abnormalmay not be sufficient for "Based on 2011 data, approximately 335support cartilage in gills, spine and fins withbroodfish when the goal isdeformities of the jaw and snout.to transfer ascorbic acids to million pounds of catfish were processed,Based on recent research, vitamin C needsembryos.a reduction of over 50 percent comparedfor reproduction and early life stages of fishare 10 times the recommended dose for rais-Reproduction andto the best production in 2003ing young adult fish. These high levels cannot arval performancebe met by dietary administration to broodfishBroodfish diet has abecause the nutrient is water soluble andmajor influence on fecundityreadily absorbed / utilized by other organsand egg quality. It has also been demonstrat- ferred to oocytes through uptake of extra-during oocyte development. ed that the nutritional status of broodfish can ovarian substances from the maternal blood.It has been demonstrated in several speciesaffect offspring quality. The accumulation of Immersion enrichment of eggs is anotherthat nutrients in broodfish diet are transferred essential nutrients in eggs is dependent on 1)approach to introduce compounds and nutri-to oocytes through uptake of extra-ovarian the nutrient reserves in the female fish and 2) ents into eggs. Immersion enrichment fol-substances from the maternal blood. Also,the dietary intake preceding gonadogenesis. lowed by feeding fry with vitamin C enhancedthere was up to a 82.4 percent loss of ascor-Vitamin C is needed for maturation, repro-feed was also found to be an effectivebic acid of the prepared commercial diet. Aduction and larval metamorphosis. Beneficialmethod.3.8 8.3-fold increase of vitamin C in the diet effects include increased fertility, fecundityInjecting vitamin C in to broodfish duringgenerally results in 56 to 71.9 percent increase and egg quality.artificial- induced maturation improved repro-of total ascorbic acid in the eggs respectively. Nutrients in broodfish diet are trans-duction and progeny performance. Efforts areProviding proficient tools to achieve cost-effectiveand sustainable aquaculture practicesEDICIONLANGUAGEESPANOLA ECOBIOL AquaEDITIONSPANISHa highly effective single strain probiotic GUSTOR Aquaa natural growth promoterBIOMET Aqua an organic mineral sourcerlNatuna trition uNOREL,S.A. Jess Aprendiz, 19, 1 A y B 28007 Madrid (SPAIN)Tel. +34 91 501 40 41 Fax +34 91 501 46 44 www.norel.es http://www.aquafeed.co.uk/edicion-espanola May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 9 AN. REV. 90X132.indd 102/08/11 13:13 4. WHO CARES... If profits in the aquaculture industry are as appetising as a sea bass dinner?As feed prices soar and formulation moves towards sustainability, aquaculture producersmust maximise feed efficiency to stay on the menu.In all phases of the fishs life, proper nutrition will improve health. With decades of dedicated research,the Alltech Aqua Advantage programme responds to the challenges of todays aquaculture producers through nutritional innovation, addressing issues such as growth and performance, feed efficiency,flesh quality and immunity. So, when asked who cares about your profitability? RememberDOES! Silver Sponsor of XV International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and FeedingMolde, Norway 4-7 June 2012alltech.com | facebook.com/AlltechNaturally | @Alltech 5. Fatten up your bottom line. Bhler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.comVolume 15 / Issue 3 / May-June 2012 / Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reservedBhler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 firstname.lastname@example.org, www.buhlergroup.comInnovations for a better world. 6. FEATURE "A decade ago, producing commercial quantities of hybrid catfish was believed to be unattainable. - Presently, a third of catfish farmers raise hybrid catfish in production ponds and hybrid catfish account for approximately 25% of all the total catfish processed in 2011" underway to develop procedures to effec-furcatus male), hybridisation can be used made in this area by new knowledge-based to improve productivity immediately by tively and stably accumulate vitamin C in eggs by advances in live food production or nutri- broodstock injections (Table 1).producing fish that exhibit hybrid vigor. ent delivery systems that may create large Based on numerous laboratory and fieldimprovements in terms of production, survivalVitamin C needs of trials, hybrid catfish are superior in growth and processing yield.channel catfishrate, feed conversion, s