transfer of appropriate crumb rubber modified bitumen ... manufacturing, mix design and construction

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  • Transfer of Appropriate Crumb

    Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Technology to WA Stage 1: Open Graded Asphalt

    Stage 1 entails the development of a

    crumb rubber binder used in open

    graded asphalt and Draft Specification

    516 - Crumb Rubber Open Graded

    Asphalt

  • June 2019

    Transfer of Appropriate Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen Technology to WA 2016-012

    ABN 68 004 620 651

    Victoria

    80A Turner Street

    Port Melbourne VIC 3207

    Australia

    P: +61 3 9881 1555

    F: +61 3 9887 8104

    info@arrb.com.au

    Western Australia

    191 Carr Place

    Leederville WA 6007

    Australia

    P: +61 8 9227 3000

    F: +61 8 9227 3030

    arrb.wa@arrb.com.au

    New South Wales

    2-14 Mountain St

    Ultimo NSW 2007

    Australia

    P: +61 2 9282 4444

    F: +61 2 9280 4430

    arrb.nsw@arrb.com.au

    Queensland

    21McLachlan Street

    Fortitude Valley QLD 4006

    Australia

    P: +61 7 3260 3500

    F: +61 7 3862 4699

    arrb.qld@arrb.com.au

    South Australia

    Level 11,

    101 Grenfell Street

    Adelaide SA 5000

    Australia

    P: +61 8 7200 2659

    F: +61 8 8223 7406

    arrb.sa@arrb.com.au

    for Main Roads Western Australia

    Reviewed

    Project Leader

    Elsabe van Aswegen

    Quality Manager

    Joe Grobler

    PRP16016-1 FINAL

  • June 2019

    TRANSFER OF APPROPRIATE CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN TECHNOLOGY TO WA

    VERSION CONTROL

    ARRB Project No PRP16016 Client Project No 2016-012

    Author Elsabe van Aswegen & Lincoln Latter

    PL Elsabe van Aswegen QM Joe Grobler

    Task Date Technical/Quality Checks Responsibility By

    (Initials)

    1 30/04/2019 Initial Draft using required and approved template and following reporting

    formatting guidelines

    Author EvA

    2 30/04/2019 Spell checked Author EvA

    3 30/04/2019 All tables and figures/images checked for source and permission for use

    (where appropriate/applicable)

    Author EvA

    4 07/06/2019 References and superseded references checked by Library, Library

    comments addressed, updated ref list pasted into report

    Author EvA, TM

    5 06/06/2019 Checked by QM for technical rigour and accuracy (discuss required

    changes with Author)

    Quality Manager JG

    6 28/06/2019 QM to send report to editor@arrb.com.au Quality Manager JG

    7 05/072019 Report reviewed for formatting, grammar, use of referencing and overall

    presentation and return to Quality Manager

    Editor PM

    8 11/07/2019 QM addresses Editor comments (liaising with Author) Quality Manager EvA/JG

    9 17/07/2019 QM to send final report to ARRB PL, Program Manager and cc. Author

    and Library

    Quality Manager JG

    10 18/07/2019 Release to client with a cc. to the Author, QM and editor@arrb.com.au Program Manager EvA

    COMMENTS

    mailto:editor@arrb.com.au mailto:editor@arrb.com.au

  • - i - June 2019

    SUMMARY

    The use of CRM binder in high-performance sprayed seals has been routine practice in Western Australia (WA) for over 30 years. The use of CRM binder for asphalt materials has not been previously investigated in WA. Internationally, the use of CRM binder in open-graded asphalt (OGA) and gap-graded asphalt (GGA) is accepted practice, with utilisation in dense-graded asphalt (DGA) less established.

    A review of literature and current practice indicated the following, addressing some Main Roads concerns with the technology:

    ▪ National and international literature indicates that the utilisation of crumb rubber is a high-value, sustainable reuse of tyre waste that can benefit the environment and improve the performance of seals and asphalt.

    ▪ International literature indicates that the use of CRM binder can be successfully combined with WMA technologies. This was indicated to address one of the main barriers to implementation, namely emissions and worker health.

    ▪ Research conducted through the NACoE program, in conjunction with TMR, shows that CRM binder can be successfully used in OGA. The research through NACoE also included the development of a supplementary specification and construction of a trial section.

    ▪ Review of selected international practice indicated that the manufacturing, mix design and construction of CRM asphalt generally follows the same principles, although the specification values for each property may vary between each jurisdiction.

    A CRM binder with crumb rubber content of 18 and 20 parts, as well as 18% by mass of total binder was developed at ARRB’s laboratory.

    Using materials supplied by a local Perth supplier, an OGA mix conforming to Main Roads’ Specification 504 Asphalt Wearing Course (Main Roads 2017) was designed. Laboratory mixes were prepared with the standard binder specified (i.e. A20E polymer modified binder, and the CRM binder. Laboratory results indicated that the A20E polymer modified binder could be replaced with 18% CRM binder at 0.5% higher binder content.

    A coarser PSD compared to the conforming mix was also investigated to assess if the air voids could be increased, while using the 18% CRM binder. Based on the laboratory results, the coarser and optimised PSD did result in an increase in air voids of approximately 2%, also at a mix binder content of 5.0%.

    The demonstration trial undertaken as part of this project consisted of the following sections:

    1. Specification 504 conforming OGA with 4.5% A20E binder content

    2. Specification 504 conforming OGA with 5.0% CRM binder content (18% crumb rubber)

    3. Coarser OGA with 5.0% CRM binder content (18% crumb rubber).

    Although the Report is believed to be

    correct at the time of publication,

    Australian Road Research Board, to the

    extent lawful, excludes all liability for loss

    (whether arising under contract, tort,

    statute or otherwise) arising from the

    contents of the Report or from its use.

    Where such liability cannot be excluded,

    it is reduced to the full extent lawful.

    Without limiting the foregoing, people

    should apply their own skill and

    judgement when using the information

    contained in the Report.

  • - ii - June 2019

    For the purpose of the demonstration trial, Main Roads developed Draft Specification 516 Crumb Rubber Open Graded Asphalt. Fulton Hogan was the industry partner that conducted the design, production and construction of the crumb rubber open grade demonstration trial.

    A binder was developed by Fulton Hogan that contained 18% crumb rubber. The developed binder complied to all the draft specification requirements.

    The draft specification called for the Marshall design method to be used. Standard PSD OGA and alternative PSD OGA mixes were successfully designed, complying to all the draft specification requirements.

    A plant trial at Fulton Hogan’s Hazelmere premises built confidence in production, rolling sequence and roller setting. This was followed by the construction of a successful demonstration trial between 17 March 2019 and 25 March 2019 on the Kwinana Freeway between Russel Road Interchange and Anketell Road Interchange.

    During the demonstration trial, samples were taken for monitoring of emissions. The results of the monitoring indicated the levels of airborne contaminants at the work site were being adequately controlled with regard to the impact on workers’ personal exposure. Almost negligible levels of exposure were recorded for inhalable dust, VOC and PAH emissions.

    Use of a WA Carbon Savings Estimation Tool that was developed as part of WARRIP Project 2017-001, indicated an estimated reduction in emissions of between 2% and 4% if warm mix additives were solely used. A further reduction in estimated emissions of between 43% and 47% could be achieved if CRM binder was used. In combination, reduction in estimated emissions of between 45% and 49% can be achieved.

    Splash and spray assessment could not be conducted due to the timing of the construction. A subjective splash and spray questionnaire matrix was included for possible future assessment.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Main Roads Western Australia, in particular Steve Halligan; ARRB Laboratory staff, in particular Shannon Malone, Elizabeth Woodall and Derek Harris and Fulton Hogan Hazelmere staff, as well as Dr Laszlo Petho.

  • - iii - June 2019

    CONTENTS

    1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................................. 1

    1.3 Approach ............................................................................................................................... 1 1.3.1 Stage 1 – Develop CRM Binder OGA Trial Specifications ........................................ 1 1.3.2 Stage 2 – Conduct and Monitor CRM Binder OGA Trial ........................................... 2 1.3.3 Stage 3 – Future P

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