Theory and Design of Digital Communication and Design of Digital Communication Systems Providing the underlying principles of digital communication and the design techniques of real-world

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<ul><li><p>Theory and Design of Digital Communication Systems</p><p>Providing the underlying principles of digital communication and the design techniques ofreal-world systems, this textbook prepares senior undergraduate and graduate students forthe engineering practices required in industry. Covering the core concepts, including linkanalysis, modulation, demodulation, spread spectrum, equalization, channel fading effects,and channel coding, it provides step-by-step mathematical derivations to aid understandingof background material. In addition to describing the basic theory, the principles of systemand subsystem design are introduced, enabling students to visualize the intricate connec-tions between subsystems and understand how each aspect of the design supports the overallgoal of achieving reliable communications. Throughout the book, theories are linked topractical applications with over 250 real-world examples, whilst 370 varied homeworkproblems in three levels of difficulty enhance and extend the text material. With thistextbook, students can understand how digital communication systems operate in the realworld, learn how to design subsystems, and evaluate end-to-end performance with ease andconfidence.</p><p>Tri T. Ha is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the NavalPostgraduate School (NPS), Monterey, California, a position he has held since 1989. Prior tojoining NPS he worked at Fairchild Industries and GTE, and was an Associate Professor atVirginia Tech for four years. He is an IEEE Fellow who has written two previous textbooks,and his current research interests are in wireless communications and cyber warfare.</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>Theory and Design of DigitalCommunication Systems</p><p>TRI T. HANaval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>cambr idge univers ity pres s</p><p>Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,So Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City</p><p>Cambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK</p><p>Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York</p><p>www.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p><p> Cambridge University Press 2011</p><p>This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the written</p><p>permission of Cambridge University Press.</p><p>First published 2011</p><p>Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge</p><p>A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication dataHa, Tri T., 1949</p><p>Theory and design of digital communication systems / Tri T. Ha.p. cm.</p><p>ISBN 978-0-521-76174-1 (hardback)1. Digital communications. I. Title.</p><p>TK5103.7.H35 2011384dc22</p><p>2010024374</p><p>ISBN 978-0-521-76174-1 Hardback</p><p>Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p><p>Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence oraccuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to</p><p>in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on suchwebsites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>World peace must develop from inner peace. Peace is not the absence of violence. Peaceis the manifestation of human compassion.14th Dalai Lama of Tibet (Inscription on United States Congressional Medal)</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>Preface page xviiAcknowledgements xixList of symbols xxList of abbreviations xxx</p><p>1 Introduction 11.1 Brief overview 11.2 Scope 31.3 Summary 8</p><p>Bibliography 9</p><p>2 Deterministic signal analysis 10Introduction 10</p><p>2.1 General description of deterministic signals 10Continuous-time signals 11Discrete-time signals 11Periodic and aperiodic signals 12Analog and digital signals 13</p><p>2.2 Power and energy 162.3 Orthogonal signals 212.4 Signal space 27</p><p>GramSchmidt procedure 27Signal vectors 28</p><p>2.5 Linear time-invariant systems 342.6 Convolution 352.7 Fourier series of continuous-time periodic signals 37</p><p>Parseval relation for periodic signals 39Unit step and unit impulse functions 39Power spectral density 41Bandwidth 41Frequency shifting property 42Response of an LTI system to a periodic signal 45</p><p>2.8 Fourier transform of continuous-time signals 47Frequency shifting property 50Parseval relation 52Fourier transform of periodic signals 53</p><p>vii</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>Response of LTI systems 53Tables of Fourier properties and Fourier transform pairs 56</p><p>2.9 Autocorrelation 56Autocorrelation and energy spectral density 57Autocorrelation and power spectral density 59Output autocorrelation and power spectral density 61</p><p>2.10 Sampling 62Sampling theorem 62Impulse-train sampling 63Reconstruction with an ideal lowpass filter 64</p><p>2.11 Bandpass signals 68Representations 68Response of an LTI bandpass system 70</p><p>2.12 Summary 72Problems 73Further reading 77Bibliography 77</p><p>3 Random signal analysis 78Introduction 78</p><p>3.1 Review of probability theory 78Total probability theorem 79Bayes theorem 79Independence 79Union bound 79</p><p>3.2 Random variables 79Bayes theorem and total probability revisited 81</p><p>3.3 Random processes 82Autocorrelation and autocovariance 82Types of random processes 85Power spectral density 92</p><p>3.4 Gaussian process 100Linear transformation 100Sampling 102Sufficient statistics for signal processing in white Gaussian noise 103KarhunenLoeve expansion 105Whitening filter 106The central limit theorem 108</p><p>3.5 Gaussian-derived processes 108Rayleigh and Rice processes 108Squared envelope 111Sum of squared Gaussian processes 112Nakagami-m density function 113Log-normal density function 114</p><p>viii Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>3.6 Summary 117Problems 118Further reading 121Bibliography 121</p><p>4 Information theory and channel coding 122Introduction 122</p><p>4.1 Entropy of a discrete source 1224.2 Source coding 124</p><p>Huffman codes 126Shannon noiseless source coding theorem (first theorem) 127</p><p>4.3 Discrete channel 128Mutual information 129Channel capacity 131Shannon noisy channel coding theorem (main theorem) 131</p><p>4.4 Gaussian channel 134Differential entropy 136Mutual information and channel capacity 138Bandlimited Gaussian channel capacity 144Gaussian channel with discrete inputs 144</p><p>4.5 Channel coding with block codes 1474.6 Low-density parity-check codes (LDPC) 152</p><p>Tanner graph 153Message passing algorithm (MPA) 154</p><p>4.7 Channel coding with convolutional codes 160Hard decodingBSC 163Soft decodingDMC 165Soft decodingGaussian input vector 167</p><p>4.8 Summary 169Problems 170Further reading 175Bibliography 175</p><p>5 Communication link analysis 177Introduction 177</p><p>5.1 Basic wireless communication link 177Thermal noise 178Effective noise temperature 181Receiver noise model 187System signal-to-noise ratio 190</p><p>5.2 Cellular communication link 191Frequency spectrum 192Major cellular standards 192Cell connection 195</p><p>ix Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>Path loss: two-ray ground reflection model 196Hata model 199Modified Hata model 202Reciprocity and the reverse link 203</p><p>5.3 Co-channel interference in a narrowband cellular system 203Combined signal-to-interference and noise ratio 206Sectoring 208Microcell-zoning 210</p><p>5.4 CDMA cellular link analysis 211Forward link 211Reverse link 214</p><p>5.5 Satellite communication link 2155.6 Summary 219</p><p>Problems 220Further reading 224Bibliography 224</p><p>6 Modulation 225Introduction 225</p><p>6.1 Review of double sideband-amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) 2256.2 Digital modulation 2296.3 Phase shift keying (PSK) 2316.4 Differential phase shift keying (DPSK) 2346.5 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) 2366.6 Frequency shift keying (FSK) 238</p><p>Power spectral density 2406.7 Minimum shift keying (MSK) 242</p><p>Power spectral density 243Modulator 247</p><p>6.8 Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) 2496.9 The need for M-ary modulation 251</p><p>6.10 M-ary amplitude shift keying (MASK) 252Signal space 252Power spectral density 253Modulator 255</p><p>6.11 M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) 255Signal space 256Power spectral density 258Modulator 260Offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) 260</p><p>6.12 Differential M-ary phase shift keying (DMPSK) 262Alternative differential encoding for DQPSK 264Direct symbol mapping 265Modulator 265</p><p>x Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>6.13 /4-shifted differential quadrature phase shift keying (/4-DQPSK) 266Signal space 267Direct symbol mapping 268</p><p>6.14 M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) 270Signal space 270Power spectral density 271Differential MQAM (DMQAM) 274</p><p>6.15 Code shift keying (CSK) 275Power spectral density 276Modulator 276</p><p>6.16 M-ary frequency shift keying (MFSK) 277Power spectral density 278Modulator 279</p><p>6.17 Continuous phase modulation (CPM) 280Power spectral density 281Modulator 282</p><p>6.18 Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) 282Practical baseband implementation 283Cyclic prefix 287</p><p>6.19 Trellis coded modulation (TCM) 290Ungerboeck TCM 291Pragmatic TCM 295</p><p>6.20 Summary 298Problems 299Further reading 302Bibliography 302</p><p>7 Demodulation 305Introduction 305</p><p>7.1 The matched filter 306Time domain interpretation 306Frequency domain interpretation 310Output signal and noise waveforms 310Decision variable 311Summary 312</p><p>7.2 The correlator 3127.3 The matched filterenvelope detector (noncoherent matched filter) 313</p><p>Output signal-to-noise ratio 317Decision variable 318Summary 318</p><p>7.4 The quadrature correlatorsquare law detector (noncoherent correlator) 3187.5 The threshold detector 320</p><p>Optimum threshold 320Maximum likelihood criterion 321</p><p>xi Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>7.6 The maximum detector 322Gaussian decision variables 323Rice and Rayleigh decision variables 323</p><p>7.7 Binary demodulation 325Coherent PSK 326Coherent DPSK 328Direct detection ASK 329Coherent FSK 331Coherent MSK and precoded MSK and GMSK 332Noncoherent FSK and MSK 337Noncoherent DPSK 339Performance summary of binary modulation techniques 345</p><p>7.8 Minimum Euclidean distance detector 345Symbol error probability 348</p><p>7.9 M-ary maximum detector 350Gaussian decision variables 351Rice and Rayleigh decision variables 353</p><p>7.10 M-ary demodulation 355Coherent L-path demodulator: a signal space approach 355Coherent M-path demodulator 358Noncoherent M-path demodulator 360</p><p>7.11 Coherent MASK 3627.12 Coherent MPSK 3667.13 Coherent DMPSK 3717.14 Noncoherent DMPSK 3757.15 Noncoherent /4-DQPSK 3797.16 Coherent MQAM and DMQAM 3807.17 Coherent CSK and MFSK 3837.18 Noncoherent CSK and MFSK 3847.19 Coherent CPM with sequence detection 3867.20 Coherent CPM with symbol-by-symbol detection 3957.21 Noncoherent CPM 3977.22 Performance summary of M-ary modulation techniques 4017.23 OFDM demodulation 402</p><p>Timing synchronization 403Carrier phase synchronization 409</p><p>7.24 Binary demodulation with convolutional codes 410Hard decoding 411Soft decodingGaussian input vector 412Soft decoding2 input vector 414</p><p>7.25 TCM demodulation and decoding 4167.26 Summary 422Appendix 7A: The Q-function 422</p><p>xii Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org/9780521761741</p></li><li><p>Problems 423Further reading 430Bibliography 430</p><p>8 Spread spectrum 432Introduction 432</p><p>8.1 Direct sequence modulation 432Orthogonal covering 436IS-95 forward link 440Code division multiple access (CDMA) 443IS-95 reverse link 444</p><p>8.2 Direct sequence demodulation 446Quadrature orthogonal covering demodulation 450Noncoherent demodulation of DS-CSK 454CDMA: performance evaluation 457</p><p>8.3 Frequency hop spread spectrum 460Partial-band jamming 461Multi-tone jamming 462Follower jamming 464</p><p>8.4 Summary 466Problems 466Further reading 471Bibliography 471</p><p>9 Intersymbol interference and equalization 473Introduction 473</p><p>9.1 Intersymbol interference 473Nyquist criterion for zero ISI 475</p><p>9.2 Optimum demodulator for bandlimited channel 477Condition for maximum SNR0 480Condition for zero ISI 480Solution for |HT ( f )| and |HR ( f )| 480</p><p>9.3 Zero-forcing linear equalizer (ZF-LE) 482Summary 493</p><p>9.4 Mean-square error linear equalizer (MSE-LE) 4949.5 Zero-forcing decision-feedback equalizer (ZF-DFE) 5019.6 Mean-square error decision-feedback equalizer (MSE-DFE) 5069.7 Maximum likelihood sequence detection 5099.8 Fractionally spaced equalizer (FSE) 5169.9 Summary 517</p><p>Problems 518Further reading 520Bibliography 520</p><p>xiii Contents</p><p>www.cambridge.org in this web service Cambridge University Press</p><p>Cambridge University Press978-0-521-76174-1 - Theory and Design of Digital Communication SystemsTri T. HaFrontmatterMore information</p><p>http://www.cambridge...</p></li></ul>

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