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  • SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-0687 Unlimited Release Printed January 2014

    The Water, Energy, and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim): A Users Manual

    Peter H. Kobos, Jesse D. Roach, Geoffrey T. Klise, Jason E. Heath, Thomas A. Dewers, Karen A. Gutierrez, Leonard A. Malczynski, David J. Borns and Andrea McNemar.

    Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550

    Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.

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    Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

    by Sandia Corporation.

    NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

    United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof,

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    SAND2014-0687

    Unlimited Release

    Printed January 2014

    The Water, Energy, and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim):

    A Users Manual

    Peter H. Kobos1, Jesse D. Roach

    1, Geoffrey T. Klise

    1, Jason E. Heath

    2, Thomas A. Dewers

    2,

    Karen A. Gutierrez3, Leonard A. Malczynski

    1, David J. Borns

    3 and Andrea McNemar

    4

    Sandia National Laboratories

    Earth Systems Department1, Geomechanics

    2, Geotechnology and Engineering

    3

    P.O. Box 5800

    Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185

    National Energy Technology Laboratory4

    3610 Collins Ferry Road

    P.O. Box 880

    Morgantown, WV 26507-0880

    Abstract

    The Water, Energy, and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is a national

    dynamic simulation model that calculates and assesses capturing, transporting, and storing CO2

    in deep saline formations from all coal and natural gas-fired power plants in the U.S. An

    overarching capability of WECSsim is to also account for simultaneous CO2 injection and water

    extraction within the same geological saline formation. Extracting, treating, and using these

    saline waters to cool the power plant is one way to develop more value from using saline

    formations as CO2 storage locations.

    WECSsim allows for both one-to-one comparisons of a single power plant to a single saline

    formation along with the ability to develop a national CO2 storage supply curve and related

    national assessments for these formations. This report summarizes the scope, structure, and

    methodology of WECSsim along with a few key results. Developing WECSsim from a small

    scoping study to the full national-scale modeling effort took approximately 5 years. This report

    represents the culmination of that effort.

    The key findings from the WECSsim model indicate the U.S. has several decades worth of

    storage for CO2 in saline formations when managed appropriately. Competition for subsurface

    storage capacity, intrastate flows of CO2 and water, and a supportive regulatory environment all

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    play a key role as to the performance and cost profile across the range from a single power plant

    to all coal and natural gas-based plants ability to store CO2. The overall systems cost to

    capture, transport, and store CO2 for the national assessment range from $74 to $208 / tonne

    stored ($96 to 272 / tonne avoided) for the first 25 to 50% of the 1126 power plants to between

    $1,585 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne stored ($2,040 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne avoided) for

    the remaining 75 to 100% of the plants. The latter range, while extremely large, includes all

    natural gas power plants in the U.S., many of which have an extremely low capacity factor and

    therefore relatively high systems cost to capture and store CO2.

    For context, the first gigatonne of CO2 captured from all coal and natural gas power plants has a

    cost of only $61 / tonne of CO2 stored and $85 / tonne avoided. These levels correspond to

    approximately 7,626 million gallons per day (MGD) of added water demand for the avoided

    emissions, and for a storage rate of 1 GtCO2 per year, this uses 5% of all capacity across the

    formations.

    The analytical value and insight provided by WECSsim allow users to run power plant- and

    formation-specific scenarios to assess their cost and performance viability relative to other

    pairings throughout the lower 48 states of the U.S. Along with a national-level perspective,

    the results can identify which power plants are the most economically viable for CO2

    capture, transportation, and storage (CCS), and which saline water-bearing formations are

    the most likely candidates to support large-scale, multi-decade CCS. A wide suite of

    scenarios can be developed by adjusting the cost and engineering parameter assumptions

    throughout WECSsim. With this capability, interested parties can address questions

    regarding geologic parameters, power plant make-up power, water treatment costs, and

    efficiencies, amongst many other salient variables both at the power plant level, and when

    developing a nation-wide assessment.

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    Acknowledgements

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the authors would like to thank the National Energy

    Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Andrea McNemar and the Existing Plants, Emissions &

    Capture (EPEC) program in particular, for funding and guiding the research in the areas of

    EnergyWater Program Management and Research. Thanks also go to Lynn Brickett, Jared Ciferno, Andrea Dunn, and Tom Feeley of NETL for their guidance and support of this project.

    Additionally, the authors wish to thank Mike Hightower from SNL for his initial insights,

    Malynda Cappelle of the University of Texas at El Paso for her contributions to this work by

    providing insights to the water treatment engineering and cost analyses, as well as Jim

    Krumhansl, Sean A. McKenna, and La Tonya Walker for their contributions. Portions of this

    study were first presented at the 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 Annual Conferences on Carbon

    Capture Utilization & Sequestration in Pittsburgh, the December 2008 conference of the U.S. &

    International Association for Energy Economics (USAEE/IAEE) in New Orleans, the 2010

    conference of the USAEE/IAEE in Calgary, Canada, the October 2011 conference of the

    USAEE/IAEE in Washington, D.C., the November 2012 conference of the USAEE/IAEE in

    Austin, TX, and the July 2013 USAEE/IAEE conference in Anchorage, AK. Additionally,

    reports outlining Phases I, II, and III (Kobos et al., 2008; Kobos et al., 2010a; Kobos et al.,

    2010b) provide additional details for the interested reader. This report contains formatting

    updates as of December 2013.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ 7

    Table of Figures .............................................................................................................................. 9

    Tables ............................................................................................................................................ 12

    Acronyms and Abbreviations ....................................................................................................... 13

    1. An Introduction to the Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration Model (WECSsim)

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