The Sustainability of Production-Consumption Chains ... ?· The Sustainability of Production-Consumption…

Download The Sustainability of Production-Consumption Chains ... ?· The Sustainability of Production-Consumption…

Post on 08-Sep-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

  • The Sustainability of Production-ConsumptionChains: Insights from the Industrialization of Shrimp Aquaculture in Asia

    Dr. Louis LebelDirector

    Unit for Social and Environmental ResearchFaculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University

    llebel@loxinfo.co.thwww.sea-user.org

    Harvard University22 October 2003

    Research T

    opics in Sustainable Developm

    ent Seminar, C

    enter for International Developm

    ent, Kennedy School of G

    overnment, H

    arvard Univ. 22 O

    ct. 2003

  • Motivating Question

    How can the shrimp aquaculture industry be made more sustainable, ecologically, economically and socially?

    Solution: Improve livelihoods (and voices) of the poor Cannot shut the industry but may involve

    restrictions on locations and technologies Should take account the commodity-chain or web

    of inputs from ocean to plate

  • Outline

    Research design Organization of the shrimp industry

    Sea Ponds Processing Trade-Consumption

    Governance

  • Research Design

    Organization of the chain (web) Economic, ecological and social sustainability

    issues at various points along the chain Understanding histories of land-use change:

    acquisition of land,ownership and property rights Distribution of risks and benefits to local

    communities in pond/hatchery areas International trade and consumer behaviour

    Integration with coastal/rural livelihoods Knowledge system and institutional

    performance

  • Fieldwork

    Producer Hatcheries,

    Factories,Feedmills, Input Suppliers

    Fishing and agriculturalcommunities

    Import-export companies

    Knowledge producers disseminators

    Consumers

    Japan

  • Shrimp Production -ConsumptionSystem

  • Thailand

    1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

    Prod

    uctio

    n (T

    hous

    ands

    of T

    onne

    s)

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    Culture Capture

    Viet Nam

    1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

    Prod

    uctio

    n (T

    hous

    ands

    of T

    onne

    s)

    0

    50

    100

    150C

    ultu

    re A

    rea

    (Tho

    usan

    ds o

    f Hec

    tare

    s)

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Pond Area

    Cul

    ture

    Are

    a (T

    hous

    ands

    of H

    ecta

    res)

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Culture Capture Pond Area

    Increasing importance of aquaculture in overall shrimp production

    Growth in production relative to area

    Rapid expansion and intensification of aquaculture

    Shrimp Aquaculture

  • Shrimp Production -ConsumptionSystem

  • Inputs from the Sea

    Subsidy from nature Feed Dependence on gravid-

    female shrimp Stretching and masking

    of feedbacks by source switching

    Small-scale fishery conflicts

    Technological solutions substitution in feeds Complete life cycle

    Knowledge uncertainty size of impact and attribution

    Institutional control -Almost un-regulated accept indirectly thru EEZ, coastal fisheries rules

  • Hatcheries

    State involvement Constraints:

    availability of gravid females (rearing?)

    costs of Artemia feed Water quality and

    disease Access to coast Access to credit-initial

    Innovation: Freshwater acclimatisation

  • Shrimp Production -ConsumptionSystem

  • Land Conversion

  • MangroveConversion

    ShrimpMangrove

  • Mangroves and Shrimp Aquaculture

    Aquaculture is one of the contributing direct and indirect causes of mangrove conversion/degradation (definitions)

    Other coastal/riparian ecosystems are also converted to aquaculture (rice, rubber)

    thus importance as driverhas varied between placesand over time

    Wetland ecosystems Reversibility

  • Pond-level technology Changes

  • Pond Production

    948393914Percentage of farms having used antibiotics

    991001001478Percentage of farms using artificial feed

    5159761125Mean Survival Rate (%)

    66.055.028.74.83.7Mean Stocking rate (ind m-2)

    1.380.911.392.9523.7Mean total area of ponds (ha)

    0.520.570.702.620.1Mean Pond size (ha)

    EastThailand

    WestThailand

    CentralVietnam

    SouthVietnam

    NorthVietnam

  • Intensification

    Int SemiIndonesia 10 10Philippines 15 50Vietnam 10 20 +-Taiwan 50 50Thailand 85 10 Hatchery, Satun, Thailand

  • Production Risks

    Aquaculture

    IndustryUrban

    Agriculture

    DISEASE

    POOR WATERQUALITY

    Markets

    PRICES,CAPITALLABOUR

    CONSUMERCHOICE

    INSTITUTIONALCONTROLS

    EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT/SOCIAL CONTEXT HAS EFFECTS

  • Environmental Effects

    Effluents: nutrients & sediments Disruption of hydrology Salinisation Pond sediment disposal Inputs into feeds: fish meal to GM soybean Wildcapture of broodstock Biodiversity of mangroves/wetland systems

    and offshore ecosystems

  • Rearing in ponds

    Land Conversion Primary/secondary

    mangrove conversion Disruption of hydrology

    Water management Effluents: nutrients from

    unprocessed feeds and PM from erosion of sediments

    Chemical releases to environment including antiobiotics

    Land Conversion Zoning: catch-up and

    negotiable Access is everything Decision procedures

    captured by local elitesWater management Conflicts + cooperation Zoning and siting Effluent controls ? Technology promises Non implementation of post-

    treatment laws Code of Conduct

  • Distributing risks and benefits

    Distribution of risks and benefits among people with different livelihoods and ecosystems that provide input or waste assimilation services

    Rules of entry acquisition of land and credit

  • Consumption Population

    Organization

    Technology

    Markets

    KnowledgeSystems

    Environment Livelihoods

    ResourceInstitutions

    mig

    ratio

    n

    cons

    umer

    aw

    aren

    ess

    &pr

    efer

    ence

    s

    Industrial Transformation

  • Shrimp Production -ConsumptionSystem

  • Value-added Processing

  • Processing and marketing

    Direct sustainability issues are relatively minor and not shrimp commodity specifi

    But: an important stage in the commodity chain in terms of monitoring of chemical residues and food safety

    Subsidies from the state (many parts of chain) Direct assistance Infrastructure Private-Public R&D Tax incentives (eg mills) Market channel

    promotion Enabling frameworks

    (FAO/NACA)

  • Value added

    Value ChainBrood stockSeed producerFarmingProcessor/ExporterTotal value addedImported contentTotal Domestic value added

    Value added (Mil baht)2,1602,64062,40040,800108,00015,00093,000

    4th National symposium in marine shrimp culture : Rayong Nov,2002

  • Shrimp Production -ConsumptionSystem

  • Trade

    Argument: tougher regulations reduce competitiveness

    Counter: progressive improvements may lead to more sustainable and better technologies

    Diplomatic tit-for-tat with EU over antiobiotic residues

    Trade competitiveness and barriers economic and institutional analyses

    Certification labellingprogrammes

    Traceability Information about

    social/ecologicalconsequences could flow along some of the same IT channels that make markets work

  • Importers and Exporters of ShrimpProducer Net Export Balance

    Value

    (US million)

    Consumer Market Net Import BalanceValue

    (US million)

    Thailand 664 European Union 567

    Iceland 184 United States 362

    Indonesia 87 Japan 287

    Norway 84 Australia 36

    Malaysia 29 Switzerland 25

    India 29 Korea 20

    China 26 Canada 14

    Vietnam 23 New Zealand 4

  • Consumption

    Green campaigns: consumers have been far away - Information could bring them much closer and they may not like much what they see

    Response: labelling in supermarkets, but most consumption outside home

    Knowledge uncertainties

    Role of media and education

    Start with little but hard to find independent -/reliable sources

    Secure-quality controlled supply lines Japanese

  • Counter-labelling

    How much leverage at the consumer end of chain? Retailers, Restaurants, Hotels, Final Consumers? Would information matter? No conclusion field

    work in progress

  • Consumption Population

    Organization

    Technology

    Markets

    KnowledgeSystems

    Environment Livelihoods

    ResourceInstitutions

    mig

    ratio

    n

    cons

    umer

    aw

    aren

    ess

    &pr

    efer

    ence

    s

    Industrial Transformation

  • KnowledgeSystem

    Components Actors Network-linkages Messages

    Analysis Gaps Control and Access Institutional arrangements

    knowledge system

  • Conventional Political-Economy View (stays within Thailand)

    Sustainability has not been the goal

    Little awareness of the value of goods and services from wetland ecosystems(wastelands)

    Model of management: Knee-jerk engineering solutions

    Structure of power in the provinces

    1997 Constitution and local government (TAO)

    Inter-agency competition and shifting agendas

    Over-arching state emphasis on export-oriented growth

    Unsatisfactory

  • GovernanceAnalytical Framework

    How problems are identified How decisions are made Who is included How rules are enforced How conflicts are resolved If/how activities are accountable

    (upwards, downwards) Activities/interests of different

    actors

    Working Paper in Progress points of leverage and control

  • Summary of Analysis

  • Conclusion

    Transitions to sustainability would benefit from paying much more attention to the structures and processes in production-consumption chains

    Chain (or web-) based analysis of commodity chains is an important compliment to place-based research in sustainability Tracking of physical flows, inputs and outputs (cf. life-cycle

    analysis) Distribution of benefits and sharing of risks Consideration of environmental governance along

    commodity chain: control and leverage

  • Acknowledgements

    Suparb Pasong Amnuay Saengnoree Nguyen Hoang Tri Le Kim Thoa Po Garden Sachiko Nakayama Supaporn Khrutmuang Sakawarat Sareerat Phimphakan Lebel

    Chiang Mai, Thailandwww.sea-user.org

Recommended

View more >