The race for untapped talent: the prospects of diversity

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Keynote at the EAN Conference on access and diversity in higher education, Amsterdam, 17 June 2011

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  • 1. The race for untapped talent: the prospects of diversity
    Dirk Van Damme
    Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Development OECD/EDU

2. Outline
The global race for talent
Expanding higher education systems
Untapped stocks of talent
Opportunities for ethnic minority students
Benefits and prospects
The pedagogy of success
Conclusions
2
3. The global race for talent
1.
3
4. Demography
4
5. 5
6. The global talent pool
7. Need for skilled people
Demographic transition and a rapidly changing economy dramatically increase the need for skilled jobs and people
Increasing international competition for talent and high-skilled labour
Countries will increasingly look into the possibilities of high-skilled migration to solve short-term skill needs
But there may be more sustainable policy approaches
7
8. Expanding higher education systems
2.
8
9. Expansion
Higher education systems are
Recruiting more students than even before
Delivering more qualified graduates than
Receiving more (mainly public) funding than
Attracting more international students and international staff than
Expansion, massification and internationalisation will continue to grow
9
10. Growth in university-level qualifications
Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age groups 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and 55-64 years (2007)
%
11. Changes in student numbers and expenditure Index of change between 2000 and 2007 (2000=100, 2007 constant prices)
Expenditure per student increased by
14% on average between 2000-2007
12. Source: CERI/OECD,2008
Massification will continue
12
13. International studentsPercentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination
3.3 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country, compared to 2 millions in 2000.
14. International students
2007, OECD Education database
14
15. 15
16. will that be enough?
16
17. Untapped stocks of talent
3.
17
18. Waste of talent?
Higher education is not very effective in taking benefit of the human resources it potentially can tap on
High failure and drop out rates, especially in the early years
Low access and low success rates of students from disadvantaged backgrounds
Low SES students
Low educational capital
Ethnic minority students
18
19. Failure remains a huge problem
Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programme but leave without at least a first tertiary degree (2005)
%
19
20. 20
Source: Education at a Glance 2008
21. Higher education participation according to educational attainment father (2004)
21
22. Success rates of students according to educational attainment mother (Antwerp University, 2006)
22
23. Opportunities for ethnic minority students
4.
23
24. Changing populations
24
25. Percentage of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent born abroad and percentage of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad in 2009
25
26. Percentage point changes in the share of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent born abroad and of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad, 2000-09
26
27. But gaps in educational achievement
27
PISA 2009 data (reading scale)
28.

  • SES and speaking a different language at home largely explain the performance gap between the two groups in many countries. But they are not the only reasons.

29. Other factors: availability of educational resources at home, reading at home at a young age, and participating in ECEC, etc.Accounting for students' socio
-
economic background
Accounting for students' socio
-
economic background and language spoken at home
Performance difference in reading
20
Score point
difference
0
38 pts
Roughly equivalent toone year of schooling
(science -proxy)
-
20
-
40
-
60
-
80
-
100
30. Proportion of 20-24y-olds who are not in education and have not attained upper secondary education, by migrant status (2007)
29
31. Educational opportunities for migrants
Rapidly increasing share of school population
Achievement gaps in school education between native born and migrant students
With strong impact of SES and language spoken at home
But with very large variation between countries
Unqualified and out-of-school 20-24y olds are in most countries disproportionally from migrant backgrounds
And what about higher education?
30
32. Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary education qualification or are currently enrolled in a tertiary education programme, by migrant status
2007
31
33. Increasing participation disadvantaged
32
England
Increase for advantaged areas in the same period was only 4% (from 55% to 59%)
34. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and difference in 20-24y olds with secondary education
Migrants more in tertiary education
Migrants more with secondary education
Migrants less in tertiary education
Migrants more with secondary education
Migrants more in tertiary education
Migrants less with secondary education
Migrants less in tertiary education
Migrants less with secondary education
33
35. Migrant students in HE
In most countries educational participation and qualification of migrant students are lagging behind those of native students
But there are indications of rising participation levels
Large differences between countries suggest that this has little to do with innate capacities nor that it should be a insolvable problem
There seems to be a link in country profiles between migrant participation and participation of foreign students in higher education
34
36. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and percentage of foreign students (2007-2008)
35
37. Benefits and prospects
5.
36
38. Benefits and prospects
More migrant students accessing and succeeding in higher education might have very powerful economical benefits
Additional skills input in the economy has a positive impact on growth
Employment opportunities improve
A more open science and innovation system also seems to be a more productive and innovative one
37
39. The economic cost of educational underachievement
McKinsey calculated the economic cost of the 1983-1998 achievement gap in PISA results for the US today
Racial gap: black and Latino students to level of white students 2 to 4% 2008 GDP
Income gap: students from families earning 25k: 3 to 5%
System gap: underperforming states to average achievement level: 3 to 5%
International gap with top-performing nations: 9 to 16%
(1% 2008 US GDP 165 billion US$)
38
40. Proportion of employed 25-29y-old non-students with a tertiary education, working as technicians or as professionals by migrant status
2007
39
41. Difference between 25-29y olds foreign born and born in country for tertiary education and employment (2007)
Migrants less in tertiary education
Migrants with tertiary education more employed
Migrants more in tertiary education
Migrants with tertiary education more employed
Migrants less in tertiary education
Migrants with tertiary education less employed
Migrants more in tertiary education
Migrants with tertiary education less employed
40
42. Link with innovation
43. The pedagogY of success
6.
42
44. Old (or not so old) paradigm
Selection of the gifted
Only small minority has the necessary abilities
The impact of education is ceiled by the limited availability of innate abilities
Distribution of innate abilities follows normal distribution, so learning outcomes have to be distributed in the same way
Early tracking and streaming to select the best
Concentration of educational efforts and resources in elite institutions for the few
Pedagogy of failure for the many
29 April 2010
43
Hungarian Lifelong Learning Conference
45. Future paradigm
All talents to the highest possible level
Excellence is not contradictory to equity
Some countries are capable of raising achievement at both ends of the performance scale or even to enhance excellence while decreasing inequity
Effective learning demands pedagogical differentiation and less standardisation
Pedagogy of success for all!
But: talents which are more difficult to exploit demand more effective and more intensive educational interventions
29 April 2010
Hungarian Lifelong Learning Conference
44
46. Conclusions
7.
45
47. Conclusions
Demographic changes, skill demands of the knowledge economy and social change at large will increasingly ask HE to mine hitherto untapped and even undiscovered talent, beyond the easy solution of recruiting high-skilled on the international market.
There are large reservoirs of talent in the disadvantaged communities in our counties, more specifically in the migrant community.
46
48. Conclusions
Access and slowly success of migrant students in HE is improving, but much more needs to be done
Mining talents in disadvantaged students will require more effective pedago