the quest for utopia essential question: what is an ideal society?
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The Quest for UtopiaEssential Question: What is an ideal society? Utopia DefinitionDo you agree with this definition? Why or why not?
What are the constraints of this definition? Noun: an ideal community or society possessing highly desirable or perfect qualities. Etymology
Greek ou (not) and rorros (place)
In English, Utopia is pronounced exactly as Eutopia
English homophone eutopia Greek Eu (good or well) and rorros (place)
The word has a double meaning of no place or good place
Examples of Literary Utopian ArchetypesGreek Poet Hesiod (8th Century BC) describes the Golden Age of Greek history, so does Hindu and Middle Eastern literature.
Bible: Garden of Eden
Chinese writer Tao Yuamnings fable called The Peach Blossom Spring where people live in ideal harmony with nature unaware of the outside world (421 AD)
James Hilton in Lost Horizon (1933) describes a fictional utopian monestary high in theTibetan mountains called Shangri-La
Thomas Mores Utopia (1516)Word is coined in Greek by More in this work. Work of fiction and political philosophyDescribes the political and economic characteristics of a fictional island set in the New World Some think the piece is meant to be a satirical reflection of English society in the 16th century Dystopia: deconstruction of Utopia19th century British philosopher John Stuart Mill first used the word
Fictional speculation of future society based on contemporary issues such as environment, politics, the use or abuse of technology, overpopulation, etc.
Serve as warnings or satires regarding the future in dire situations. Typical Dystopian characteristics A hierarchal society A nation state that uses propaganda and rules by fear or manipulation Absence of a united government Back story of a natural disaster, war, revolution or some other climactic event. Dehumanization of society. A protagonist who questions society. Often features more advanced, futuristic technology. Popular Dystopian Novels
Dystopian archetypal literature George Orwells 1984 Aldous Huxleys Brave New World Ray Bradburys Fahrenheit 451 Lois Lowrys The Giver Suzanne Collins The Hunger Games James Dashners The Maze Runner Veronica Roths Divergent Marie Lius LegendCormac McCarthys The Road Supporting QuestionsIs Utopia attainable? At What cost?
What drives us to seek a Utopian society? How has the concept of Utopia changed over time and across cultures/societies?
Why do dystopian societies emerge? Political systems Many political and economic systems have developed in areas of the world depending on the needs of people as well as on economic resources available. Democracy Theocracy Republic Aristocracy Monarchy Capitalism Socialism Communism Feudalism Economy: Who/what controls products, goods, and services? Capitalism: Russia Socialism: Norway Communism: Cuba In a capitalist or free-market economy, people own their own businesses & property and must buy services for private use, such as healthcare.
Socialist governments own many of the larger industries and provide education, health & welfare services while allowing citizens some economic choices.
In a communist country, the government owns all businesses & farms and provides its people's healthcare, education & welfare.
How is a government run?Dictatorship: Iraq Totalitarian: China Theocracy: Iran Rule by a single unelected leader who may use force to keep control. In a military dictatorship, the army is in control. Usually, there is little or no attention to public opinion or individual rights.
Rule by a single political party. People forced to do what government tells them and may be prevented from leaving the country.
A form of government where rulers claim to be ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas or as direct agents of a deity.
Monarchy:Jordan Parliament:Israel Republic: United States Anarchy: Afghanistan A monarchy has a king or queen who sometimes has absolute power. Power is passed through the family.
A parliamentary government is led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as a member of a political party & remains in power as long as the party does.
A republic is led by representatives of the voters. Each is individually chosen for a set period of time.
Anarchy is a situation where there is no government. This can happen after a civil war in a country, when a government was destroyed & rival groups fight to take its place.
Authority Revolutionary Oligarchy Totalitarian Democracy The existing government is overthrown by a completely new group. After a period of time, the revolutionary government evolves into one of the other types of government (unless there is another coup or uprising).
A form of government which consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interests, especially the accumulation of wealth & privilege. Only certain members of society have a valid voice in the government. This can reflect (but is not limited to) economic interests (plutocracy), a particular religion (theocracy) or familial rule (monarchy).
Totalitarian governments are ruled by a single political party. Votes for alternative candidates & parties are simply not allowed. Citizens are expected to vote, but only for the government's chosen candidates.
In a democracy, the government is elected by the people. Everyone who is eligible to vote - which is a majority of the population - has a chance to have their say in who runs the country
System Definition Monarchy A political system in which the government is under the control of one powerful leader Oligarchy A political system in which the government is under the control of the merchant class. Theocracy A political system in which the government is under control a religious organization or its officials Aristocracy A political system in which the government is under the control of wealthy landowners. Democracy A political system in which the government is under the control of the citizens themselves or elected representatives chosen from eligible citizens. River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia Egypt Political System Hereditary Monarchy Divine Monarchy Monarchy: The government is under the control of one powerful leader. In Sumner and Babylon, the monarch was also the high priest who had to satisfy the Gods. In Egypt, the monarch (pharaoh) was the physical reincarnation of the god Horus. Both civilizations blend religion and politics to govern. Kingship in the ancient world Chinese emperors justified their actions by claiming the Mandate of Heaven or divine right to rule. Strong leaders would maintain the favor of heaven while weak leaders would eventually lose power: the Dynastic Cycle.
Feudalism: 6th century Western Europe is left without a strong centralized government following the breakdown of the Roman Empire.
Strong local lords created allegiances and safety in return for loyalty and military support. Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and Japan Europe Japan Nobility King, lord, lesser lord Emperor, shogun, daimyo Warriors Knights Samurai Code of Conduct Chivalry Bushido Evolution Both developed in response to the need of security and safety Everyone had well-defined social roles Helped preserve law and order Kings/Queens have complete control over the government (Divine Right). Widespread political system in Europe and parts of Asia starting in the 16th century. Nation Rulers Spain Charles V Phillip II Constant warfare France Louis XIV The Sun King Absolute power for 72 years Russia Peter the Great Catherine the Great Used autocratic methods to modernize Russia and compete with Europe. England James I Charles I Clashed with parliament. Charles is executed and after a revolution; England becomes a constitutional monarchy. Absolutism Enlightenment: (18th century) explain the purpose of government and its best form. Enlightenment Thinkers Hobbes Locke Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau View on Rights Protected only through social contract Humans all have natural rights to: life, liberty and property. Advocated freedom of speech. Social contract. Rule by the majority Views on GovernmentProtected people from others cruelty To protect natural rights Advocated religious toleration Separation of powers to prevent tyranny People give up freedoms for government protection Effects of the Enlightenment Creates discussions about what type of government is best and under what circumstances. Stimulates concepts of individualism Revolutions Glorious Revolution in Britain American Revolution French Revolution Latin American Revolutions Democracy Greece Male Citizens only Ancient Rome Officials chosen from eligible citizens Roman Republic Senate: elected for life and were land-owning aristocrats Magna Carta 1215 Nobility force King John to recognize their rights as land-owning citizens of England English Bill of Rights 1688Ensured the Supremacy of Parliament Declaration of Independence 1776 Colonies declare their right to independent rule. Socialism and Communism1848: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles write The Communist Manifesto History is a struggle between the haves and have-nots Capitalism should be abolished because it takes advantage of the working class Working class would overthrow capitalist systems Governments would create a classless society in which all wealth and power would be shared equally among the people. Russian Revolution 1917 Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky lead a group of socialist revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks against Czar Nicholas II. Lenin promises the people peace, land, and bread, but creates a one-party government: the Community Party with ultimate power. Josef Stalin turns Russia into a totalitarian state where every aspect of the peo