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  • THE MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES

    A Monograph

    By

    MAJ Dallas A. Powell, jr. SAMS Class 13-01, U.S. Army

    School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College

    Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    2013-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  • REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved

    OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)

    05-15-2013 2. REPORT TYPE Masters Thesis

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2012 May 2013

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Military Applications of Cloud Computing Technologies

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

    6. AUTHOR(S) Major Dallas A. Powell, jr., U.S. Army

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD 100 Stimson Ave. Ft. Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITORS REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    14. ABSTRACT Cloud computing remotely hosting network services and data is an emerging concept in the business world that enables the use of mobile devices, increases security, and enables more effective information sharing within organizations. Within the last year, the U.S. Department of Defense has mandated that its networks be consolidated in order to achieve the goals of efficiency, effectiveness, and security. Through cloud computing across the network as an entire enterprise, efforts such as the Joint Information Environment and Enterprise Email endeavor to achieve those goals. The view of military networks as an enterprise blurs the existing lines between garrison and tactical. Consolidation efforts are effective in permanent, garrison networks that are connected with high-bandwidth, fiber optic cables. Furthermore, hosting mission-critical services and data in the cloud will save resources and increase cyber security in the long run. However, similar application of consolidation efforts in the temporary, tactical networks which are employed in austere environments presents unique challenges that will be more effectively overcome if mission command systems are developed for use in both environments, remaining issues of physical security are more fully addressed, and if the concepts of cyber are effectively operationalized in a more comprehensive doctrine. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cloud computing, Joint Information Environment, Enterprise Email, Global Network Enterprise Construct, Network Integration Exercise, Network Centric Warfare, Cyber 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:

    17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES

    19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

    a. REPORT Unclassified

    b. ABSTRACT Unclassified

    c. THIS PAGE Unclassified

    UU

    55

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) (913)684-3302 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  • MONOGRAPH APPROVAL PAGE

    Name of Candidate: MAJ Dallas A. Powell, jr.

    Monograph Title: The Military Applications of Cloud Computing Technologies

    Approved by:

    , Monograph Director Matthew Schmidt, Ph.D.

    , Seminar Leader Michael J. Lawson, COL

    , Director, School of Advanced Military Studies Thomas C. Graves, COL

    Accepted this 23rd day of May 2013 by:

    , Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D.

    The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.)

    ii

  • ABSTRACT

    THE MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES, by MAJ Dallas A. Powell, jr., 55 pages.

    Cloud computing remotely hosting network services and data is an emerging concept in the business world that enables the use of mobile devices, increases security, and enables more effective information sharing within organizations. Within the last year, the U.S. Department of Defense has mandated that its networks be consolidated in order to achieve the goals of efficiency, effectiveness, and security. Through cloud computing across the network as an entire enterprise, efforts such as the Joint Information Environment and Enterprise Email endeavor to achieve those goals.

    The view of military networks as an enterprise blurs the existing lines between garrison and tactical. Consolidation efforts are effective in permanent, garrison networks that are connected with high-bandwidth, fiber optic cables. Furthermore, hosting mission-critical services and data in the cloud will save resources and increase cyber security in the long run. However, similar application of consolidation efforts in the temporary, tactical networks which are employed in austere environments presents unique challenges that will be more effectively overcome if mission command systems are developed for use in both environments, remaining issues of physical security are more fully addressed, and if the concepts of cyber are effectively operationalized in a more comprehensive doctrine.

    iii

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    While much of this research originated with some of the authors experiences as a U.S.

    Army Signal Officer, some individuals deserve special recognition for their inspiration,

    mentorship, and expert input. When I served as a Brigade S-6, then-Maj. Gen. Susan Lawrence

    (commander of NETCOM at the time) first suggested to me much to my chagrin that future

    technologies could eliminate the need for Brigades to deploy with their own network servers.

    This research has certainly borne out the possibilities those technologies can provide. That

    Brigades commander at the time, then-Col. Joseph Harrington, also strongly urged me to write

    about those and other experiences. In many ways, this paper is an outgrowth of his mentorship.

    Two other Army officers have contributed immeasurably to this project. Col. Claire

    Cuccio, who was the director of the TNOSC in Kuwait several years ago when I was an

    inexperienced Battalion Executive Officer, provided technical oversight and an expert pair of

    eyes to ensure the technical details of this research were right. Her eventual successor in that

    previous position, Lt. Col. Brian Vile, is a battle buddy and friend who is now the writer of the

    very document which currently defines the Joint Information Environment. I could not have

    completed this research without either of them.

    iv

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................................. vi

    ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................................................................................................... x

    INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 1

    Background and Significance ..................................................................................................... 2 Cloud Computing Defined ......................................................................................................... 7

    WHY IMPLEMENT CLOUD COMPUTING? ............................................................................. 11

    Impetus for Change ................................................................................................................... 11 DoD Directives: An Operational Design Approach ................................................................. 14

    IMPLEMENTATION IN GARRISON NETWORKS .................................................................. 17

    The Joint Information Environment ......................................................................................... 18 Enterprise Email ....................................................................................................................... 26

    IMPLEMENTATION IN TACTICAL NETWORKS.................................................................... 29

    The Global Network Enterprise Construct ............................................................................... 30 Network Integration Evaluation 13.1 ....................................................................................... 39

    AN APPLIED SCENARIO .....................

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