the invisible universe sources & detectors of invisible light neiu nasa endeavour program
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The Invisible UniverseSources & Detectors of Invisible LightNEIU NASA Endeavour Program
Electromagnetic SpectrumThe full range of frequencies, from radio waves to gamma rays, that characterizes light The electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way. The wavelength equals the speed of light divided by the frequency.
Electromagnetic RadiationElectromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern, moving at the speed of light and carrying some amount of energy. The only difference between radio waves, visible light, and gamma-rays is the energy of the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.
Wavelength and FrequencyFor any kind of wave there exists a simple relationship between wavelength and frequency. The wavelength is measured as the distance between two successive crests in a wave. The frequency is the number of wave crests that pass a a given point in space each second.
Radio(Low Frequency & Very High Frequency)Emitted byAstronomical ObjectsRadio Station transmittersDetected byGround based radio telescopesRadios
MicrowaveEmitted by:Gas clouds collapsing into starsMicrowave OvensRadar StationsCell PhonesDetected byMicrowave TelescopesFood (heated)Cell phonesRadar systems)
Infrared(Near and Thermal)Emitted bySun and stars (Near)TV Remote ControlsFood Warming Lights (Thermal)Everything at room temp or aboveDetected byInfrared CamerasTVs, VCRs,Your skin
VisibleEmitted byThe sun and other astronomical objectsLaser pointersLight bulbsDetected byCameras (film or digital)Human eyesPlants (red light)Telescopes
UltravioletEmitted byTanning booths (A)The sun (A)Black light bulbs (B)UV lampsDetected bySpace based UV detectorsUV CamerasFlying insects (flies)
X-rayEmitted byAstronomical objects X-ray machinesCAT scan machinesOlder televisionsRadioactive mineralsAirport luggage scannersDetected bySpace based X-ray detectorsX-ray filmCCD detectors
Gamma RayEmitted byRadioactive materialsExploding nuclear weaponsGamma-ray burstsSolar flaresDetected byGamma detectors and astronomical satellitesMedical imaging detectors
Sources of Gamma-ray Emission Black holes Active Galaxies Pulsars Diffuse emission Supernovae Gamma-ray bursts Unidentified
Source/Detector ActivityIdentify sources (emitters) and detectors of the various wavelengths of the EMS.Experiment with:shields types of materials that prevent the transmission of wavelengthsTransmitters materials that do not prevent the transmission of wavelengths
Our Exploration StationsVisible LightNeonFlashlightsRadio Walkie TalkiesRemote Control VehicleInfraredRemote ControlsHeat LampUltravioletUV Light
What did we learn?Question: What property of the materials we tested caused radio waves to be blocked?Question: Are all the plastics we tested translucent/transparent to infrared light?Question: If someone had no sunscreen while at the beach what could they cover their face with to keep from getting sun burned by UV light?
Exploring the EMS withNASA MissionsASTRO-E2ChandraCHIPSCon-XGALEXGLASTHETE-2INTEGRALMAPRXTESWASXMM-NewtonSwiftEnergy (eV)RadioInfraredVisibleUVX-rayGamma ray
And the universe for that matter!
Windows through Atmosphere
NASAs ViewsStudying the Universe: http://www.lhsgems.org/IUTour.html
The GEMS GuideA workbook and teachers guide inspired by the Swift mission and developed in collaboration with the GEMS Program.
Activities in this book:Activity 1: Comparing Wave MakersActivity 2: Invisible Light Sources and Detectors Activity 3: Putting the Electromagnetic Spectrum Together Activity 4: Tour of the Invisible Universe Activity 5: The Most Powerful Explosions in the Universe
Source of ActivitiesGEMS Guide: The Invisible Universe. www.lhsgems.org www.epo.sonoma.eduhttp://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mw/mmw_product.htmlhttp://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/sun.htmlStudying the Universe: http://www.lhsgems.org/IUTour.html
More InformationSwift - http://swift.sonoma.eduGLAST http://glast.sonoma.eduXMM Newton - http://xmm.sonoma.eduNASA EPO @ SSU http://epo.sonoma.eduSpace Mysteries http://mystery.sonoma.edu
Brief introduction of self. welcomeThis is basic information to introduce some basic vocabulary.
Breeze over or elaborate as needed for your audience.Not to spend a lot of time here. Simply background info about light and wavesA point to address: Please note that Microwaves are actually radio waves - .. Caution: the continuous wave image could propagate a misconception with the EM spectrum shown as one continuous wave that changes.Another sample of a slide you may want to use to show the EM spectrumFrequency is the number of wave crests that pass any specific point in each secondDuring these points define shield and transmitter. Use of the next series of slides will allow for introduction of terms used during the activity.Microwaves are really in the range of radio waves. (High frequency radio waves)Point out that the Superman idea of x-ray vision was not possible. His eyes could not be both emitter and detector of x-rays.Swift and GLAST space telescopes are researching Gamma RaysThis slide allows the presenter to discuss some of the related science associated with Gamma Ray Emissions in as much depth as necessary.Presenter may want to model first activity with visible light to demonstrate process. Set up will be determined by the amount/number of materials available as well as time allotted can be either station or each table has all materials.
After activity return and probe participants on what they learned.Make sure to connect appropriate content, address misconceptions, debunk wrong ideas and errors.i.e. metallic materials will block radio waves.Discuss why many different energy missions exist that each is studying different bandwidth which allows us go develop a full understanding of the events in the universe.Images of the sun in different wavelengths http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum/sun.html Link to Multiwavelength Sun Website Note these are false colors used to represent invisible light.Given time, connect the idea that multiple wavelengths allow us to examine objects throughout our universe. There are examples of the Milky Way Galaxy in the next slide.http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mw/mmw_product.htmlDiscuss why we sent up space based observatories and satellites.Not all wavelengths make it through our atmosphere.therefore to study them we must go above our atmosphere.Activity 1 & 2 has been mentioned previously..highlight by holding up the GEMS guide that there are three more activities.