The Classical Period 1750-1820. Qualities of Classicism  Order  Objectivity  Proportion  Emulated the art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome.

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The Classical Period 1750-18201Qualities of ClassicismOrderObjectivityProportionEmulated the art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome2Greek architecture

The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. Unityproportion--grace3

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6More . . . On the Classical PeriodAge of strong aristocraciesSpacious palaces; formal gardensBalanced proportions and detailLouis XV (France)Frederick the Great (Prussia)Maria Theresa (Austria)Catherine the Great (Russia)Age of the patronage system

7So . . .Music centered around the courtsEmployed musicians to compose, conduct, entertainAnd, because the aristocracies were powerful and important, this music found its way to the unestablished musical world of the new America8And more . . . French Revolution (1789-99)American Revolution (1775-83)These changed the political systems and social orderIndustrial Revolution (c. 1750)9Eighteenth-century Classicism,then, mirrored the unique moment in history when the old world was dying and the new was in the process of being born. From the meeting of two historic forces emerged an art of noble simplicity that constitutes one of the pinnacles of Western culture.

10Classicism in MusicThe Viennese SchoolHaydn, Mozart, Beethoven, SchubertComposed large-scale works:SymphonyConcertoSonata

11Classical MusicSingable melodiesLyrical Diatonic harmony (predictable, pleasant)Regular rhythms (also predictable)Homophonic textureFolk elements12Classical Period Golden Age of Chamber MusicMusic for 2-10 players (with one player per part) who play together to create a pieceMost prominent was the string quartetViolin IViolin IIViolaCelloThe best were written by Haydn, Mozart, BeethovenFollowed the same format as the symphony

13Haydns String QuartetsWrote 68The Quinten QuartetFourth Movement Sonata-allegro formHungarian folk tune qualityListen to interplay of instruments (Violin I dominates throughout)14Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(1756-1791)--Child prodigy

15MozartMade significant contributions to nearly all musical genresSymphonySonata (many for piano)ConcertoChamber musicSacred musicOpera16Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music) -- 1787 . . . For string quartet with double bass, or chamber orchestra. . . Listen for homophonic texture. . . First theme is disjunct. . . Second theme is conjunct (and graceful)Eine kleine NachtmusikFirst movement Sonata Allegro FormEXPOSITIONTheme I (disjunct)Theme II (conjunct, lyrical)Closing themeDEVELOPMENTRECAPITULATIONTheme I (returns)Theme II (same theme, home key)Closing theme (same theme, also in home key)Coda tail (the way for the composer to wrap up the piece

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