THE ARTS OF INDIA SOUTHEAST ASIA - Art History with ARTS OF INDIA SOUTHEAST ASIA Lecture 2B: Introduction to the Buddhist Religion Buddhist Art and Architecture in the India
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THE ARTS OF INDIA & SOUTHEAST ASIA Lecture 2B: Introduction to the Buddhist Religion Buddhist Art and Architecture in the India THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BUDDHISM: KEY CONCEPTS Buddhism: one of the major world religions first taught by the historical Prince turned monk Siddhartha Gautama Shakyamuni (563-483 BCE). Buddha: the Awakened One Dharma: that which holds you up; the truth, the teachings. Samsara: cycle of suffering life Karma: actions. These actions are causes that have effects. Nirvana: attaining Enlightenment THE BUDDHAS FIRST TEACHING The Buddha is believed to have given 84,000 teachings. The first is the most famous: The Four Noble Truths 1. Life is Suffering 2. Suffering Has A Cause 3. There is an End to Suffering 4. The Path out of Suffering is the Eightfold Path. MEDITATING BUDDHA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST, 3 7 1/2 HIGH. Early Buddhist Art: The PRE-ICONIC Phase The Maurya (322-185 BCE), Shunga (185-72 BCE) and Early Andhra Periods (70 BCE-First Century CE) FOOTPRINT OF THE BUDDHA WITH CHAKRA AND TRIRATNA, 1ST CENTURY CE, GANDHARA, INDIA. LION CAPITAL, SARNATH, INDIA, CA. 250 BCE. POLISHED SANDSTONE, 7 HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, SARNATH. LION CAPITAL AND COLUMN ERECTED BY EMPEROR ASHOKA, VAISHALI, INDIA, CA. 250 BCE. POLISHED SANDSTONE. GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, THIRD CENTURY BCE TO FIRST CENTURY CE GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, THIRD CENTURY BCE TO FIRST CENTURY CE GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, THIRD CENTURY BCE TO FIRST CENTURY CE YAKSHI, DETAIL OF THE EAST TORANA, GREAT STUPA, SANCHI, INDIA, MID-fiRST CENTURY BCE TO EARLY fiRST CENTURY CE. SANDSTONE, 5 HIGH. YAKSHI FROM DIDARGANJ, MAURYAN DYNASTY, CA. 200 BCE, POLISHED SANDSTONE MODEL OF A STUPA, FROM GANDHARA, BRONZE, 2ND CENTURY BCE. Interior of the chaitya hall, Karle, India, Shunga Dynasty, ca. 50 CE. Diagram of the chaitya hall, Karle, India, Shunga Dynasty, ca. 50 CE. Buddhist Art in India: The Romanized Phase The Kushan Period (30-320 CE) in Gandhara, modern Pakistan. HEAD OF A BUDDHA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST. HEAD OF AN AMAZON, FOUND IN POMPEII, ITALY, CA. FIRST CENTURY CE. WHITE MARBLE. 17 MEDITATING BUDDHA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST, 3 7 1/2 HIGH. NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF SCOTLAND, EDINBURGH. 17 ICONOGRAPHY OF THE BUDDHA Ushnisha Urna Elongated Ears Simple monks robe Mudra STANDING BUDDHA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST. STANDING BODHISATTVA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. GRAY SCHIST. 18 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE BUDDHA; THE BIRTH AT LUMBINI, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. SCHIST, FREER GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D.C. 18 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE BUDDHA; FIRST SERMON AT SARNATH, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. SCHIST, FREER GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D.C. 18 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE BUDDHA; DEATH (PARINIRVANA) AT KUSHINGARA, FROM GANDHARA, PAKISTAN, SECOND CENTURY CE. SCHIST, FREER GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D.C. Buddhist Art in India: The Classical Period The Gupta Period (30-320 CE) in modern Northern and parts of South India. 20 SEATED BUDDHA PREACHING FIRST SERMON, FROM SARNATH, INDIA, SECOND HALF OF FIFTH CENTURY. TAN SANDSTONE, 5 3 HIGH. ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, SARNATH. 20 Buddha Seated in Meditation (Dhyanamudra),Chola period, c. 12th century. On display at the AIC. ROCK-CUT CHAITYA HALLS AND VIHARAS, AJANTA, INDIA, SECOND HALF OF FIFTH CENTURY. Chaitya Hall and Stupa, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century. BODHISATTVA PADMAPANI, WALL PAINTING IN CAVE 1, AJANTA, INDIA, SECOND HALF OF FIFTH CENTURY. Buddhist Art outside of India: Afghanistan, Tibet/Nepal, and Indonesia COLOSSAL BUDDHA IMAGE, GUPTA PERIOD, BAMIYAN, AFGHANISTAN (DESTROYED) THANGKAS Thangka: rolled up cloth; a type of portable painting popular in Tibet and Nepal. Thangka images were joined with the deity they were associated with. Main subject (a Buddha, Bodhisattva, or Lama) always shown frontal, larger than others, to convey a sense of divine authority. Brilliant colors used. Meditation aide. Buddha Amoghasiddhi with Eight Bodhisattvas, ca. 12001250 Vajrapani (The Lord of Secrets) is a bodhisattva who is a bad-ass, almost demonic, spirit. His name means "Thunderbolt in Hand". The form depicted here is a wrathful form - his body swollen with the energy of liberation is surrounded by a wreath of flames; he shouts his mantra; and draws his hand back to hurl the vajra at you in order to break through your obscurations. Vajrapani belongs to the celestial Buddha Family which is headed by Akshobhya. Aerial view of the earthly realm from the Hindu/Buddhist worldview (left) 14th century Tibetan Mandala (right) The Stupa at Borobudur. Built in the late 8th century. Aerial view. See Figure 3.20. The stupa is built over a small hill and rises to a height of 105 feet. Four sides are oriented to the cardinal directions. 5 lower tiers are rectangular = the earthly realm. Covered in 10 MILES of relief sculpture!!! 3 highest tiers are circular = the heavenly realms, adorned with 72 smaller stupas surrounding a large, central stupa. Pilgrims start at the bottom and ascend through the past, present, and their future as an Enlightened Being. AFTER LECTURE 2B YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO. Define key concepts of the Buddhist religion and worldview as shown on the Wheel of Life Describe the iconography and subject matter of Buddhist artwork from the pre-iconic phase Identify the major features of a stupa and their function Compare and contrast early iconic images of the Buddha to Roman sculpture Identify the major markings included on images of the Buddha Explain the changes seen in Buddhist art as it enters the Classical phase and their meanings (content) Identify a thangka and the types of form and subjects seen on these rolled up paintings.
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