supportive leadership

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  • 1.Supportive Leadership

2. Types of Supportive Leadership Behavior 3. Being friendly,informative, andencouraging 4. Being considerate and understanding 5. Showing concernfor followers needs 6. Beingsympathetic to others problems 7. Helping followersdevelop abilities andcareers 8. Why Supportive Leadership isEffective? 9. #1 They satisfy peoples needs to be liked and appreciated by others, to berespected as capable and valuable, and to be continually improving; and 10. Supportiveness helps keep a group together bypromoting cohesion among members and keepingindividuals from becoming alienated #2 11. Can Supportive Behavior ever be Ineffective ? Yes! A short story A leader must be careful how supportive behavior is used and tailor the approach to the needs and concerns of followers. 12. How to Be Supportive:Skills and Power Bases Interpersonal SkillsCommunicationTechnical andSkills professional competence Skills, Traits, and Sources of PowerExpertPowerReward Power Referent Power 13. Communication skills as supportive leader behavior tool:Interpersonal Skills as supportive leader behavior tool:Through positive, friendly interpersonal relations, leader supportsfollowers, cooperates with them, develops trust with them, andassists them.Provides social support when followers are upset or under pressure.Shows appreciation and takes interest in followers lives.Sociable leaders enjoy spending time on a regular basis with eachfollower. Maintain positive cheerful disposition, said to be easy toget along with, show consideration and trust towards others.Expertise as supportive leader behavior tool:Must have expertise to provide training and development.Supportive resource in solving problemsProvide useful feedback on performanceIncreases leaders confidence and willingness to support followers. 14. How to Be Supportive:Skills and Power Bases Interpersonal SkillsCommunicationTechnical andSkills professional competence Skills, Traits, and Sources of PowerExpertPowerReward Power Referent Power 15. In addition to developing specific skills, supportive leaders also work atdeveloping three different power bases from which they can effectively apply theirleadership skills: expert, referent, and rewardExpert power helps leaders support followers by providing knowledge, skill andability in performing important tasks and solving problems. The more importantthe followers problem, the greater the likelihood the leader will have to rely onexpert power. Effective leaders use expert power to support followers byproviding needed knowledge, being available as a source of technical advice,helping individuals solve job problems, providing explanations of processes, andreferring followers to needed sources of information or assistance.Leaders whose personality, accomplishments, and integrity cause followers toadmire and identify with them acquire referent power. When leaders have referentpower, followers attribute favorable motives to the leaders, they want their leadersapproval, and they interpret small, insignificant behaviors by the leader assupportive (e.g. smile, or other friendly gesture).Reward power can be used to provide needed resources, a better work schedule, alarger expense account, or advice to for followers. Therefore supportive leadersshould work toward acquiring reward power. 16. CommunicationSkill Effectively conveytheir ideas andfeelings, listen actively,and elicit ideas andfeelings from theirfollowers. Be responsive tofollowers task-relatedproblems, complaints,and personal problems. To indicate how muchfollowers are valued . 17. Where are Supportive BehaviorsLikely to be Employed? When superior is supportive Organizational mission Human services Work with volunteers High involvement, high commitment cultures 18. Supportive Behaviors Around the World Britain - sharing of information and welcoming follower suggestions Japan & Hong Kong - interactions with group in and out of work U.S. - Open door policies, management by walking around 19. Who Should Receive Supportive Behavior?Propositions:a) The leader should show the most concern, be most considerate, and provide the greatest encouragement for the best performers because positive behavior should be reinforced.b) Interpersonal support should be provided to followers as needed regardless of performance. 20. Impact of Supportive LeadershipFollower Benefits: Satisfaction with work,job & supervisor Increased commitment Reduced stress Increased self-confidence Increased performance 21. Impact of Supportive LeadershipOrganizational Benefits: Increased cohesiveness Increased cooperation& harmony Increased productivity Lower turnover,absenteeism, lateness,grievances 22. Situations Where Supportiveness mayor may not be Effective1) Followers are under high stress while trying to complete a dangerous task.2) Followers are new to the job and are unsure of their abilities and positions.3) Followers are small group of counselors in a student services dept. of a state university.4) Followers are very opinionated and stubborn in their point of view. 23. Situations Where Supportiveness mayor may not be Effective5) Followers are a large group (over 30) who work at widely varying tasks at different locations.6) Tasks require creativity and new learning with much competition and possible conflict with other groups.7) Work involves designing & testing computer programs. Personnel is highly trained and competent and obtain a great deal of satisfaction from their work 24. Favorable environments: 1,2,3, & 6. They reflect a need forsupportiveness that can enhance or increase leadershipeffectiveness. Decrease or neutralize: 4 & 5. Indicate followers who mayresist or are immune to the positive effects of supportiveness.When supportive behaviors are present, they will likelyproduce little or no impact in follower reactions. May besubject to other types of influence. Replacement of followers need for supportiveness:Environment 7. When workers find tasks especially satisfyingand basis for high follower commitment and performance,little supportiveness from leader is necessary. 25. Situational Factors that Increase Effectivenessof Supportive LeadershipFollower Characteristics OrganizationalLow self-confidence and Group CharacteristicsLow self-esteem ExternalInsecurityConflictExpectation that leader Newly formedwill be supportive groupHigh growth needs Cohesive group Situational with shared beliefs in leader FactorsTask Characteristics Formal plans, goals, andDissatisfying proceduresStressful MissionHighly structured emphasizingRequires creativity human servicesRequires learning Authoritarian superior 26. Task Influences: Showing confidence in workers, treating them with empathy relievesstress and allows works to be more effective.Organizational and group influences: External Group conflicts - workers appreciateleader reassurance. Also newly formed groups highly influenced by supportive leaderwhen he/she helps define goals and role definitions. These people need more supportand attention than other groups.A cohesive group has a high degree of solidarity, unity, and felt closeness among themembers, and supportive leadership often pays off well in increased productivity aswell as worker attitudes. Group norms can influence outcome here--if favorable toleader, works for, if not favorable will work against and decrease the positive effects ofa leaders supportive behavior.Followers in bureaucratic organizations respond well to supportive behaviors.Apparently seen as rare caring human rather than organizational machine.Follower Characteristic Influences: Followers w/above characteristics see supportiveleader as considerate and understanding as a source of comfort and encouragement andtherefore show positive reactions to this behavior. Leaders who are supportive inindividuals reaching their goals is well received. 27. Situational Factors that DecreaseEffectivenessDogmatic Followers Large Group Factors that Decrease EffectivenessBroad Task Scope High Level Job 28. Situational Factors that Replace the Needfor Supportive LeadershipIntrinsicallyFeedback fromsatisfying taskTaskInteresting Situational Rapid Factors SpecificGratifyingMeaningfulAccurate High importance placed on organizational rewards Pay Raises Promotions 29. Leadership Process Model for Supportive Leadership Leader SupportivenessEnhancers of Neutralizers of SupportivenessSupportivenessFollowerReplacements forPsychological SupportivenessReactionsFollower Behavioral Outcomes 30. This is a pictorial of the model of supportive leader behavior.Starting at the top, supportive leader behaviors are shown toinfluence follower/group psychological reactions, which in turnaffect the followers behavioral outcomes. Situational factors thatcan increase or decrease the effectiveness of supportive behaviorare shown on each side and their impact comes to play when theyinteract with the supportive behavior. The arrows from the leadersupportiveness box to situational factor boxes indicate that theleader sometimes can manipulate situations to improve followersreactions indirectly and thereby replace the need to providesupportive behaviors. 31. LeaderSupportivenessConcerned, trusting, andrespectful of followersConsiderate understandingattitudeFriendly, encouraging,communicativeFostering followerdevelopment 32. Enhancers of SupportivenessDissatisfying or stressful jobLow follower self-confidence, insecurity, or self esteemFollower expectations of high growth needsStructured work tasksComplex creative taskExternal group conflictNew or cohesive groupOrganizational missionAuthoritarian superior 33. Neutralizers of SupportivenessDogmatic followersLarge groupBroad task scopeHigh job level 34. Follower Psychological ReactionsSatisfaction of esteem and acceptance of needSatisfaction with work and supervisorOverall job satisfactionOrganizational commitmentLower perceived stress and burnoutGroup


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