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  • SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TURKEY

    ISSUES AND POLICIES

    ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed:

    To achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy.

    To contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and

    To contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.

    The original member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996), Korea (12th December 1996) and the Slovak Republic (14th December 2000). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).

    www.oecd.org

    OECD 2004. Applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this material should be made to: OECD Publications, 2 rue Andr-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS 3

    Table of Contents

    List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................... 5

    Foreword............................................................................................................................. 7

    Assessment and Main Recommendations ......................................................................... 9

    Chapter 1. Main Features of the Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Sector in Turkey.............................................................................................. 27

    Size and structure of the sector ................................................................................... 27 Fundamental weaknesses of the sector ....................................................................... 29 The policy context surrounding the SME sector ......................................................... 31

    Chapter 2. Strengthening the Business Environment in which SMEs Operate.................................................................................................... 35

    The financial system ................................................................................................... 35 Public sector reform .................................................................................................... 41 Creating a climate more conducive to investment ...................................................... 42 Labour market ............................................................................................................. 44 Education policies ....................................................................................................... 46 Innovation policies ...................................................................................................... 48 Competition policy...................................................................................................... 49

    Chapter 3. SME-specific Policies .................................................................................... 51

    Government financial support for SMEs .................................................................... 54 Business start-up processes ......................................................................................... 56 Training and certification issues ................................................................................. 60 Development of SME support services and technology and innovation capacity............................................................................ 63 Standardising and accrediting business service organisations .................................... 67 Internationalisation and export promotion .................................................................. 67 Expanding local and regional clusters......................................................................... 69 Facilitating communication between small enterprises and other institutions................................................................................................... 69 Increasing the flow of non-financial services ............................................................. 70

    Chapter 4. Policy Evaluation............................................................................................ 71

    Annex. The Expansion of the Small and Medium Industry Development Organisations Responsibilities ..................................................... 75

    Notes................................................................................................................................. 77

    References ........................................................................................................................ 83

    SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TURKEY: ISSUES AND POLICIES OECD 2004

  • LIST OF ACRONYMS 5

    List of Acronyms

    BEST: Business Environment Simplification Taskforce

    BTYK: Supreme Council for Science and Technology

    DIE: State Institute of Statistics

    CSGB Ministry of Labour and Social Security

    DPT: Undersecretariat of State Planning Organisation

    DTM: Undersecretary of Foreign Trade

    EU: European Union

    EUROSTAT: European Statistics Office

    FDI: Foreign Direct Investment

    ICT: Information and communications technology

    IGEM: Enterprise Development Centre of KOSGEB

    ILO: International Labour Organisation

    IRC: Innovation Relay Centres

    ISKUR: Turkish Employment Organisation

    KGF: Credit Guarantee Fund Inc.

    KIT: Public Economic Enterprise

    KOBINET: Small and Medium Enterprises Network

    KOSGEB: Small and Medium Industry Development Organisation

    KSS: Small Scale Industrial Estate

    KSGET: Small Industry Development Organisation

    MEB: Ministry of National Education

    MEGAP: Strengthening the Vocational Training and Education System in Turkey

    MEKSA: Foundation for the Promotion of Vocational Training and Small Industries

    OSB: Organised Industrial Zone

    SEGEM: Industrial Training and Development Centre

    SME: Small and Medium Sized Enterprise

    SPK: Capital Markets Board

    TEKMER: Technology Development Centre of KOSGEB

    TESK: Confederation of Turkish Tradesmen and Craftsmen

    SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TURKEY: ISSUES AND POLICIES OECD 2004

  • 6 LIST OF ACRONYMS

    TESKOMB: Union of Credit and Guarantee Cooperatives for Tradesmen and Craftsmen of Turkey

    TIDEB: Technology Monitoring and Evaluation Board

    TISK: Confederation of Employer Associations of Turkey

    TMSF: Saving Deposit Insurance Fund

    TOBB: Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Maritime Trade and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey

    TPE: Turkish Patent Institute

    TSE: Turkish Standards Institute

    TTGV: Technology Development Foundation of Turkey

    TBITAK: The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey

    TRKAK: Turkish Accreditation Agency

    TURK-IS: Confederation of Trade Unions of Turkey

    VCIT: Venture Capital Investment Trusts

    SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN TURKEY: ISSUES AND POLICIES OECD 2004

  • FOREWORD 7

    Foreword

    SMEs play a particularly important role in the Turkish economy, because of their number and because of the large share of the workforce involved. The government authorities have for many years carried out a variety of programmes to support these enterprises. The design and implementation of such programmes have received increasing attention since Turkey joined the Customs Union with the European Union on 1 January 1996, and the authorities are developing them in a framework of international co-operation. Turkeys participation in the first OECD Conference on SMEs at Ministerial level, held in Bologna in June 2000, and the adoption of the Bologna Charter on SME Policies are evidence of its interest in the work of the OECD. Also, as a candidate for membership of the European Union, Turkey ratified the European Charter for Small Enterprises in April 2002 and participates in the Multi-annual Programme for Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (MAP) 2001-05.

    During the preparation for the second OECD Conference of Ministers Responsible for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, hosted jointly by the Turkish Ministry of Industry and Trade and the OECD on 3-5 June, 2004, in Istanbul, the OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship agreed to carry out a peer review of Turkish policies toward SMEs in the context of its core activity of evaluation of SME policies and programmes. The assessment required for this review is a challenge in view of difficulties that are inh

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