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Submitted for the partial fulfillment of award OF Degree of Bachelors of Technology (Electronics and Communication Engineering)

BY: DHRUV GOYAL (ROLL NO: 0913231037)

Department of Electronics and Communication G.N.I.T. GREATER NOIDA Session 2011-2012


This is to certify that DHRUV GOYAL has carried out training work presented in this report entitled 3D PRINTING for the award of Bachelor of technology Degree from GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, Lucknow.

Mr. Dhiraj Gupta H.O.D(ECE)

Seminar Committee (1) Mr. Sunil Kr. Choudhary (2) Mr. Manish Gupta


I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Sunil Choudhary and Mr. Manish Gupta (seminar co-ordinaters) for their valuable guidance for the success of this seminar. I also thank Mr. DHIRAJ GUPTA (HOD, ECE) and all other staff of the department for their kind co-operation extended to me. I am thankful to all my friends who helped me in completing my seminar a successful one. I am also thankful to all the people who were directly or indirectly involved in helping to complete my seminar report.

DHRUV GOYAL (0913231037)


1: Introduction 1 1.1: Typical 3D Printer 1 2: History of 3d Printing 2 3: Current 3D Printing Technologies 3 3.1: Stereo lithography 3 3.2: Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3 3.3: Multi-jet modeling (MJM) 3 3.4: Inkjet 3D printing 4 4: MANUFACTURING A MODEL WITH THE 3D PRINTER 5 4.1: Algorithm 5 5: Workflow 6: Process 7 6.1: CAD Preparation (Pre Process) 7 6.2: 3D Printing 8 6.3: Cleaning 3D Printouts 9 6.3.1: Powder Removal 10 6.3.2: Heating 11 6.3.3: Finishing Touch 12 7: Benefits of 3D Printing 13 8: Applications 14


8.1: Design Prototypes 14 8.2: Education 15 8.3: Health 16 9: 3D Printing Success Stories 17 10: Conclusion 19 11: Sources



FIGURE 4.1.1 : 5 FIGURE 5.1 : 6 FIGURE 6.1.1 : 7 FIGURE 6.2.1 : 8 FIGURE 6.3.1 : 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11

Algorithm Workflow CAD Preparation (Pre Process) 3D Printing Cleaning 3D Printouts Powder Removal Heating

FIGURE 12 FIGURE 8.1.1 : 14 FIGURE 8.2.1 : 15 FIGURE 8.3.1 : 16 FIGURE 9.1 : 17 FIGURE 9.2 : 18

Finishing Touch Design Prototypes Education Healthcare 3D Printing Success Stories 3D Printing Success Stories


Introduction to 3D Printing

3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. It is also known as rapid prototyping, is a mechanized method whereby 3D objects are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object. The 3D printing concept of custom manufacturing is exciting to nearly everyone. This revolutionary

method for creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology saves time and cost by eliminating the need to design; print and glue together separate model parts. Now, you can create a complete model in a single process using 3D printing. The basic principles include materials cartridges, flexibility of output, and translation of code into a visible pattern.

1.1 Typical 3D Printer3D Printers are machines that produce physical 3D models from digital data by printing layer by layer. It can make physical models of objects either designed with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D Scanner. It is used in a variety of industries including jewelry, footwear, industrial design, architecture, engineering and construction, automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education and consumer products.



History of 3d Printing

The technology for printing physical 3D objects from digital data was first developed by Charles Hull in 1984. He named the technique as Stereo lithography and obtained a patent for the technique in 1986. While Stereo lithography systems had become popular by the end of 1980s, other similar technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were introduced.

In 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another technology, named "3 Dimensional Printing techniques", which is similar to the inkjet technology used in 2D Printers. In 1996, three major products, "Genisys" from Stratasys, "Actua 2100" from 3D Systems and "Z402" from Z Corporation were introduced. In 2005, Z Corp. launched a breakthrough product, named Spectrum Z510, which was the first high definition color 3D Printer in the market. Another breakthrough in 3D Printing occurred in 2006 with the initiation of an open source project, named Reprap, which was aimed at developing a self-replicating 3D printer.



Current 3D Printing Technologies

3.1 Stereo lithography - Stereo lithographic 3D printers (known as SLAs or stereo lithography apparatus) position a perforated platform just below the surface of a vat of liquid photo curable polymer. A UV laser beam then traces the first slice of an object on the surface of this liquid, causing a very thin layer of photopolymer to harden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another slice is traced out and hardened by the laser. Another slice is then created, and then another, until a complete object has been printed and can be removed from the vat of photopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured.

Fused deposition modeling - Here a hot thermoplastic is extruded from a temperature-controlled print head to produce fairly robust objects to a high degree of accuracy. 3.2 Selective laser sintering (SLS) - This builds objects by using a laser to selectively fuse together successive layers of a cocktail of powdered wax, ceramic, metal, nylon or one of a range of other materials. 3.3 Multi-jet modeling (MJM) - This again builds up objects from successive layers of powder, with an inkjet-like print head used to spray on a binder solution that glues only the required granules together. The V-Flash printer, manufactured by Canon, is low-cost 3D printer. Its known to build layers with a light-curable film. Unlike other printers, the VFlash builds its parts from the top down. Desktop Factory is a startup launched by the Idea lab incubator in Pasadena, California.

(3) Fab@home, an experimental project based at Cornell University, uses a syringe to deposit material in a manner similar to FDM. The inexpensive syringe makes it easy to experiment with different materials from glues to cake frosting. 3.4 Inkjet 3D printing It creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster, or resins) and inkjet printing binder in the crosssection of the part. It is the most widely used 3-D Printing technology these days and the reasons beyond that are stated below. This technology is the only one that

Allows for the printing of full color prototypes. Unlike stereo lithography, inkjet 3D printing is optimized for speed, low cost, and ease-of-use. No toxic chemicals like those used in stereo lithography are required. Minimal post printing finish work is needed; one needs only to use the printer itself to blow off surrounding powder after the printing process. Allows overhangs and excess powder can be easily removed with an air blower.




The model to be manufactured is built up a layer at a time. A layer of powder is automatically deposited in the model tray. The print head then applies resin in the shape of the model. The layer dries solid almost immediately. The model tray then moves down the distance of a layer and another layer of power is deposited in position, in the model tray. The print head again applies resin in the shape of the model, binding it to the first layer. This sequence occurs one layer at a time until the model is complete 4.1 ALGORITHM The algorithm used in the Inkjet 3-D Printing is depicted in the figure mentioned below.

FIGURE 4.1.1




The workflow can be easily understood with the help of the flowchart given below. A 3-D prototype of a desired object is created in three basic steps and these steps are: Pre-Process 3-D Printing Post-Process





6.1 CAD Preparation (Pre-Process):Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computeraided design and drafting (CADD), is used to prepare a 3-D or 2-D model of the desired object. Modern CAD packages can

also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle. Most 3D printers require a special file (typically .stl format) to print. Additionally, we need to modify the design to make up for limitations of the printer and build material.

FIGURE 6.1.1


6.2 3D Printing:

The 3D printer runs automatically, depositing materials at layers ~.003 thick. This is roughly the thickness of a human hair or sheet of paper. The time it takes to print a given object depends primarily on the height of the design, but most designs take a minimum of several hours. The average cost for printing a full color prototype is somewhere between 50 - 100 $.

FIGURE 6.2.1


6.3 Cleaning 3D Printouts (Post-Process):

Every 3D printer uses some sort of material to support parts of the design that have an overhang. Some printers use a loose powder which can be blown off and reused in future models.

FIGURE 6.3.1

Here you have the Han Solo in Carbonite stage


Powder Removal:

This is the sculpture with most of the support dust removed and it is then dipped in special glue that makes them stronger and more colorful.


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