semantics of clause linking (explorations in linguistic typology )r. m. w. dixon, alexandra y....

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The Semantics of Clause Linking

E X P L O R AT I O N S I N L I N G U I S T I C T Y P O L O G Y general editors: Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon. The Cairns Institute, James Cook University This series focuses on aspects of language that are of current theoretical interest and for which there has not previously or recently been any full-scale crosslinguistic study. Its books are for typologists, Weldworkers, and theory developers, and designed for use in advanced seminars and courses.published 1 Adjective Classes edited by R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald 2 Serial Verb Constructions edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon 3 Complementation edited by R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald 4 Grammars in Contact edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon 5 The Semantics of Clause Linking edited by R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald Published in association with the series Areal DiVusion and Genetic Inheritance Problems in Comparative Linguistics edited by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon

The Semantics of Clause LinkingA Cross-linguistic Typology

Edited by R . M . W. D I XO NAND


The Cairns Institute James Cook University



Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With oYces in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York q Editorial matter and organization R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald 2009 q The chapters their various authors 2009 The moral rights of the author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published 2009 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose the same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset by SPI Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India Printed in Great Britain on acid-free paper by MPG Books Group ISBN 9780199567225 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2

ContentsPreface vii Notes on the Contributors Abbreviations xii viii

1 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Typological Perspective 1 R. M. W. Dixon 2 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Akkadian 56 Guy Deutscher 3 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Galo 74 Mark Post 4 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Kham 96 David E. Watters 5 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Manambu 118 Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald 6 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Iquito 145 Lev Michael 7 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Aguaruna 167 Simon Overall 8 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Ojibwe 193 J. Randolph Valentine 9 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Boumaa Fijian 218 R. M. W. Dixon 10 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Toqabaqita 239 Frantisek Lichtenberk 11 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Martuthunira 261 Alan Dench 12 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Korean 285 Ho-min Sohn 13 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Goemai 318 Birgit Hellwig 14 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Konso 336 Maarten Mous and Ongaye Oda



15 The Semantics of Clause Linking in Mali 356 Tonya N. Stebbins 16 Semantics and Grammar in Clause Linking 380 Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald Author index 403 Language index 405 Subject index 408

PrefaceBetween the typological introduction and Wnal summary, this volume includes revised versions of fourteen of the Wfteen presentations at the International Workshop on The semantics of clause linking, held at the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology, 1318 August 2007. Ho-min Sohn, author of Chapter 12, is (besides being a native speaker of the language), the leading world authority on Korean grammar. Guy Deutscher (Chapter 2) is thoroughly familiar with the multitudinous textual corpus of Akkadian. In 1980, Alan Dench (author of Chapter 11) was asked by Algy Paterson, the last Xuent speaker of Martuthunira, to document his language. Dench recorded and analyzed a considerable corpus before this language passed into extinction with the speakers death in 1995. The other eleven chapters in this volume are by linguists who have each undertaken lengthy spells of immersion Weldwork in a community where the language is actively spoken, and themselves acquired competence in it. As with previous volumes emanating from our International Workshops (also published in the series Explorations in Linguistic Typology) we owe a considerable debt to John Davey, our editor at Oxford University Press. Over the years we have worked with many editors from a number of publishing houses. John Davey is in a class of his own for insight, perceptiveness, eYciency, andmore important of allthe delight which he takes in publishing our books, and the enthusiasm which never fails to cheer us.

Notes on the ContributorsAlexandra Y. Aikhenvald is Professor and Research Leader, People and Societies of the Tropics, in the The Cairns Institute of James Cook University. She has worked on descriptive and historical aspects of Berber languages and has published, in Russian, a grammar of Modern Hebrew (1990). She is a major authority on languages of the Arawak family, from northern Amazonia, and has written grammars of Bare (1995, based on work with the last speaker who has since died) and Warekena (1998), plus A grammar of Tariana, from northwest Amazonia (Cambridge University Press, 2003; paperback 2007), in addition to essays on various typological and areal features of South American languages. Her lengthy grammar, The Manambu language from East Sepik, Papua New Guinea, was published by Oxford University Press in 2008. Other monographs with OUP are ClassiWers: a typology of noun categorization devices (2000, paperback 2003), Language contact in Amazonia (2002), Evidentiality (2004, paperback 2006) and Imperatives and commands (due in 2010). Address: The Cairns Institute, James Cook University PO Box 6811, Cairns, N Qld 4870, Australia; e-mail: Alan Dench has a Ph.D. from the Australian National University and is now Professor of Linguistics at the University of Western Australia. His principal area of expertise lies in primary documentation and grammatical description of Australian Aboriginal languages, in particular the languages of Western Australia. He has written booklength grammatical descriptions of three languages of the Pilbara regionPanyjima, Martuthunira, and Yingkartaand is working on a description of Nyamal. He has also made particular contributions to the historical and comparative analysis of Australian languages, and has published on ethnolinguistics and language contact. Address: Linguistics M258, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia; e-mail: Guy Deutscher studied mathematics before gaining a Ph.D. from Cambridge in linguistics. He was a Research Fellow in Historical Linguistics at St Johns College, Cambridge, and is now in the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Languages at the University of Leiden. He has published two books, Syntactic change in Akkadian: the evolution of sentential complementation (Oxford University Press, 2000) and The unfolding of language: an evolutionary tour of mankinds greatest invention (William Heinemann, UK, and Metropolitan, USA, 2005). Address: TCMO, Leiden University, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands; e-mail: R. M. W. Dixon is Adjunct Professor in the The Cairns Institute of James Cook University. He has published grammars of a number of Australian languages (includ ing Dyirbal and Yidin), in addition to A grammar of Boumaa Fijian (University of

Notes on the Contributors


Chicago Press, 1988), The Jarawara language of southern Amazonia (Oxford University Press, 2004) and A semantic approach to English grammar (Oxford University Press, 2005). His works on typological theory include Where have all the adjectives gone? and other essays in semantics and syntax (Mouton, 1982) and Ergativity (Cambridge University Press, 1994). The rise and fall of languages (Cambridge University Press, 1997) expounded a punctuated equilibrium model for language development; this is the basis for his detailed case study Australian languages: their nature and development (Cambridge University Press, 2002). Address: The Cairns Institute, James Cook University PO Box 6811, Cairns, N Qld 4870, Australia; no e-mail. Birgit Hellwig studied African Languages and Anthropology at the Universities of Bayreuth and Hamburg and then completed her Ph.D. at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and the University of Nijmegen on The grammatical coding of postural semantics in Goemai. She is a junior professor in language documentation at the University of Erfurt. She had published on various aspects of Goemai grammar, semantics,


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