Secondary and Extended Dominants and Extended Dominants Chords ... In jazz harmony, ... • We don’t usually approach composition from an analytical point.
Post on 30-Mar-2018
Handout #4 Music 214
Secondary and Extended Dominants Chords
Secondary dominant has many definitions depending on the type of musical genre you are working in. Generally speaking, it is typically a dominant 7th chord that is not the dominant of the prevailing key. The concept of the secondary dominant was not recognized in writings on music theory prior to 1939. Before this time, in music of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms, a secondary dominant, along with its chord of resolution, was considered to be a modulation. Because the effect of modulation was so short, and did not sound like a real arrival of a new key, the two chords had a special name--"transient modulation"--that is, a modulation in which the new key is not established. This description did not truly reflect what was happening in the music so theorists in the early 1900s, such as Frank Shepard, Benjamin Cutter, and George Wedge, searched for a better description of the phenomenon.
In 1939, in a manuscript entitled "Principles of Harmonic Analysis," Walter Piston first used the analysis "V7 of IV." (Notably, Piston's analytical symbol always used the word "of"--e.g. "V7 of IV" rather than the virgule [slash notation] "V7/IV) In his 1941 "Harmony" Piston used the term "secondary dominant" for the first time. It has been generally accepted in music theory since then. Secondary dominant chords momentarily tonicize a note other than the tonic by functioning as that note's dominant, but don't normally indicate any modulation, and can occur on any degree of the scale. In addition, in traditional harmony, secondary dominants can be major triads and do not have to be dominant 7th chords. To further confuse you… In jazz harmony, a secondary dominant is any dominant chord that occurs on a weak beat and resolves downward by a perfect 5th. This is slightly different from the traditional use of the term, where a secondary dominant does not have to be a 7th chord, occur on a weak beat, or resolve downward. In jazz harmony, if a non-diatonic dominant chord is used on a strong beat it is considered an extended dominant!!! And, If it doesn't resolve downward, it may be a borrowed chord….. Yada, yada, yada!!! Let’s simplify… For our purpose, a secondary dominant is a dominant 7th chord that is the V7 of a diatonic chord. (see example below) If it is the V7 of a non-diatonic chord, like V7/bII or V7/bIII or V7/bVI, it will be referred to as an Extended Dominant. The secondary dominant terminology is still used even if the chord resolution is nonfunctional (for example if V7/ii is not followed by ii)
Voice lead Secondary dominants in the key of C
The use of the solid arrow identifies a V to I relationship that is resolved
Simple and Complex Roman Numeral Analysis
Simple: An easy way to analyze Harmonic progressions is to use the Simple RN method. Label the chord exactly what its simple relationship is to the Key center of the song. Examples: 1. The chord Eb is the bIII in the key of C major. 2. The chord Db is the bII in the key of C major. 3. F-7 is the IV-7 in the key of C major
Complex: A more complex analysis can be done if the chord has a higher function. Examples:
1. D7 is the V7/V in C and is a secondary dominant 2. Bb7 is the V7/bIII in C and is an extended dominant 3. F7 is the V7/bVII in C and is an extended dominant
Do in Class:
Modal Interchange Let’s take a moment here to further complicate the issue of the harmonic analysis. In traditional theory any chord that is not diatonic to the key center can be explained by borrowing it’s analysis from a parallel major or minor mode. The non-diatonic chord is known as a Borrowed Chord. In contemporary harmony we call the process Modal Interchange. We do this just for analysis purpose as a way to analyze and justify non-diatonic chords. Modal Interchange is a music term that refers to non-diatonic chords that are placed into a chord progression by being borrowed from other parallel modes. For example, in a C ionian (major) progression you might have the following chord progression: Cmaj7, Fmaj7, Cmaj7. The roman numeral analysis of this progression would be I maj7, IV maj7, I maj7. If you changed the progression to Cmaj7, F-7, the
progression is still in C major, but the F-7 would be a IV minor chord borrowed from a parallel mode such as Aeolian (Natural minor). We have just finished a brief study of major diatonic harmony from our last lesson. Know that any scale type, or mode, can be used to create diatonic harmony and melody. Any and every mode such as Dorian, Lydian or any synthetic scale has it’s own diatonic melodic/harmonic structure. The principle is the same. The harmony/melody is constructed from the notes of the scale. Minor diatonic harmony is derived from the scales of the natural, harmonic, and melodic minors and will have different qualities for each chord than that of the major diatonic harmony. Below is a comparison of the major, natural minor, harmonic minor and ascending melodic minor scales and their respective diatonic harmony with Roman Numeral analysis.
Reasons for using Modal Interchange
• We don’t usually approach composition from an analytical point. We write from some source of inspiration or experience, later we analyze what we have composed.
• When looking at the works of others we need a way to analyze the music. Using Modal Interchange gives us an easy way to analyze the harmonic structure.
Do in class: