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Notes 3-1ROMAN EMPIRE 509 BC - 476 ADLocation
Three groups of people Influenced Rome Latins 1000-600 BC Greeks 750-600 BC.Etruscans 600 BC
Roman Republic509 BC. Romans drive out Etruscan king and develop a republic 3 part system (lasted 500 years)Consuls (patrician)2 men elected annually Senate (patrician) 300 member elected body Assemblies (plebeians) Tribune officials
Roman ArmyRoman empire is built primarily by the exceptional strength of its army. soldiers could march 30 miles a day carrying 60 pounds of armorMost important was superior discipline and organization. Roman soldiers fought in legions, groups of 3000-6000 infantry and 100 horsemen. They used strict discipline and tight battle formations to defeat opponents.Rome used the same weapons as its enemies, but simply fought better and smarter
Punic Wars - 264-146 BC.hardest fought wars in Rome's historylasted over 120 yrs.Rome lost over 500,000 menwar was over control of Sicily and the Mediterranean Sea
-250,000 pop. three times that of Rome-huge navy (500 ships)-Carthage was one of the Med. Sea wealthiest cities and had conquered much of Spain.-each year collected over 1 million pounds of gold from tribute and tariffs-because of wealth, army consisted of mercenaries not Carthaginians
-had access to more troops (500,000)-soldiers more loyal-life was built on war not wealth-Roman ship: long gangplank with huge hook at the end. It would hook the enemies ship and then army would rush over the plank and kill the enemy. Not in use, stand straight up
1st Punic War- 246-241BC
Carthaginians had a much stronger navy, though Rome had a better army. Rome quickly builds a navy, drives Carthage from Sicily, and claims its first provinceadapted land tactics to them (catapults, gangplank)
2nd Punic War - 219-202
Carthaginians expand into Spain. Hannibalconsidered equal to Alexander the Greatgreat military geniusesage 29 assembled 50,000 infantry, 9,000 Cavalry, 60 war elephants and tries to capture Rome. Never loses a battle in 13 years. Lost all elephants but one and half of his men crossing the Alps. Causes massive destruction. One battle with Romans: between 40,000 to 70,000 Romans die out of 86,000 Romans. -most lopsided victory in military history-lack of supplies kept Hannibal form defeating the Romans
To counter, Rome sends armies into Spain and North Africa. Fearful for his home land, Hannibal retreats and is defeated by Scipio (Rome's most outstanding general)
Rome defeats Macedonians in 205 BC., takes their territory, then defeats Syrians for control of much of Asia Minor.
3rd Punic War - 149-146 BC. Rome, now vastly stronger than Carthage, attacks city, burns it to the ground and sells survivors for slaveryRome hated Carthage because many Romans died because of Hannibal. Plowed salt into their soil. So crops would never come up.
Gracchus Brothers Tiberius Gracchusseek reforms 133 BC.wanted to help the farmerssoldiers had nothing when returned from war (farms destroyed)rich that did not fight bought most of land and became richerlimit the size of farmshe and 300 followers were killed by a group of senators that did not want reformsclubbed to death and flung his body into the Tiber River
-Gaius Gracchus (10 yrs later)-Tiberius younger brother-urged for more reforms-wanted to help the middle class-he along with several thousand are killed in 122 BC. -huge reward for his death, some say killed in battle other say he had his slave kill him (commit suicide)
-Leads a massive slave revolt 73 BC. to 71 BC-trained in a gladiatorial school with 70 gladiators, escaped from gladiatorial training school - 90,000 slaves join him- they defeat Roman forces in Southern Italy for two years -Spartacus is finally killed-Crassus defeats him with the help of Pompey-6,000 slaves are crucified (crucifixion)
The First TriumviratePompeyVery powerful man who had won major military victories in Asia Minormarries Caesar's daughter Julia for an alliance with Caesar
CrassusOne of richest men in Rome, defeated Spartacus and slave revoltbiggest property owner in Rome. Owns silver mines and is in control of the slave trade. Even has his own fire department. Horse drawn water tank. Negotiate price for his services. Common result acquire property. Owner pay rent. Julius CaesarYoung, brilliant, former governor of Spain and Gaul
Caesar led an army which took over Gaul
Crassus took over Syria, but was killed fighting against the Parthians.-53 BC poured molten gold down his throat to end his life long thirst for gold (ancient story)
While they were gone, Pompey gains more power in the Senate, has Senate order Caesar to come home without his army. Caesar returns to Rome with his armymen could march 50 miles a day carry 60 pounds of armorwould kill 1/3 of people conquered
Civil war breaks out, and Pompey flees to Egypt, where he is killed by advisors to the Pharaoh when he sets foot on the shore. Pharaoh gave Caesar Pompey's head.
Caesar grieved the death of his son-in-law and friend
Caesar takes his army, conquers more territory, and returns home a hero in 46 BC.
I came, I saw, I conquered
love affair with Cleopatra (had a son)
Caesar has himself declared dictator and consul, making him sole ruler of Rome, in 44 BC.became one of Rome's greatest generals and political leadersVery popular with massesInstitutes land reform Fills Senate with his own officers (now 900 Senators), thus insuring loyaltyReorganized government