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For copies of this Booklet and of the full Review to be sent to addressesin the Americas, Australasia, or the Far East, visit

http://pdg.lbl.gov/pdgmail

or write toParticle Data GroupMS 50R6008Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeley, CA 94720-8166, USA

From all other areas, visit

http://pdg.lbl.gov/pdgmail

or write toCERN Scientific Information ServiceCH-1211 Geneva 23Switzerland

To make comments or corrections, send e-mail to PDG@LBL.GOV. Weacknowledge all e-mail via e-mail. No reply indicates nonreceipt. Pleasetry again.

Visit our WWW site: http://pdg.lbl.gov/

The publication of the Review of Particle Physics is supported by theDirector, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S.Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC0205CH11231; by theU.S. National Science Foundation under Agreement No. PHY-0652989;by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN); by animplementing arrangement between the governments of Japan (MEXT:Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) and theUnited States (DOE) on cooperative research and development; and bythe Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

1

PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET

Extracted from the Review of Particle Physics

K.A. Olive et al. (Particle Data Group), Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014)

(next edition: July 2016)

Particle Data Group

K.A. Olive, K. Agashe, C. Amsler, M. Antonelli, J.-F. Arguin, D.M. Asner,

H. Baer, H.R. Band, R.M. Barnett, T. Basaglia, C.W. Bauer, J.J. Beatty,

V.I. Belousov, J. Beringer, G. Bernardi, S. Bethke, H. Bichsel, O. Biebel,

E. Blucher, S. Blusk, G. Brooijmans, O. Buchmueller, V. Burkert,

M.A. Bychkov, R.N. Cahn, M. Carena, A. Ceccucci, A. Cerri, D. Chakraborty,

M.-C. Chen, R.S. Chivukula, K. Copic, G. Cowan, O. Dahl, G. DAmbrosio,

T. Damour, D. de Florian, A. de Gouvea, T. DeGrand, P. de Jong,

G. Dissertori, B.A. Dobrescu, M. Doser, M. Drees, H.K. Dreiner,

D.A. Edwards, S. Eidelman, J. Erler, V.V. Ezhela, W. Fetscher,

B.D. Fields, B. Foster, A. Freitas, T.K. Gaisser, H. Gallagher, L. Garren,

H.-J. Gerber, G. Gerbier, T. Gershon, T. Gherghetta, S. Golwala,

M. Goodman, C. Grab, A.V. Gritsan, C. Grojean, D.E. Groom,

M. Grunewald, A. Gurtu, T. Gutsche, H.E. Haber, K. Hagiwara,

C. Hanhart, S. Hashimoto, Y. Hayato, K.G. Hayes, M. Heffner, B. Heltsley,

J.J. Hernandez-Rey, K. Hikasa, A. Hocker, J. Holder, A. Holtkamp,

J. Huston, J.D. Jackson, K.F. Johnson, T. Junk, M. Kado, D. Karlen,

U.F. Katz, S.R. Klein, E. Klempt, R.V. Kowalewski, F. Krauss, M. Kreps,

B. Krusche, Yu.V. Kuyanov, Y. Kwon, O. Lahav, J. Laiho, P. Langacker,

A. Liddle, Z. Ligeti, C.-J. Lin, T.M. Liss, L. Littenberg, K.S. Lugovsky,

S.B. Lugovsky, F. Maltoni, T. Mannel, A.V. Manohar, W.J. Marciano,

A.D. Martin, A. Masoni, J. Matthews, D. Milstead, P. Molaro, K. Monig,

F. Moortgat, M.J. Mortonson, H. Murayama, K. Nakamura, M. Narain,

P. Nason, S. Navas, M. Neubert, P. Nevski, Y. Nir, L. Pape, J. Parsons,

C. Patrignani, J.A. Peacock, M. Pennington, S.T. Petcov, A. Piepke,

A. Pomarol, A. Quadt, S. Raby, J. Rademacker, G. Raffelt, B.N. Ratcliff,

P. Richardson, A. Ringwald, S. Roesler, S. Rolli, A. Romaniouk,

L.J. Rosenberg, J.L. Rosner, G. Rybka, C.T. Sachrajda, Y. Sakai,

G.P. Salam, S. Sarkar, F. Sauli, O. Schneider, K. Scholberg, D. Scott,

V. Sharma, S.R. Sharpe, M. Silari, T. Sjostrand, P. Skands, J.G. Smith,

G.F. Smoot, S. Spanier, H. Spieler, C. Spiering, A. Stahl, T. Stanev,

S.L. Stone, T. Sumiyoshi, M.J. Syphers, F. Takahashi, M. Tanabashi,

J. Terning, L. Tiator, M. Titov, N.P. Tkachenko, N.A. Tornqvist, D. Tovey,

G. Valencia, G. Venanzoni, M.G. Vincter, P. Vogel, A. Vogt, S.P. Wakely,

W. Walkowiak, C.W. Walter, D.R. Ward, G. Weiglein, D.H. Weinberg,

E.J. Weinberg, M. White, L.R. Wiencke, C.G. Wohl, L. Wolfenstein,

J. Womersley, C.L. Woody, R.L. Workman, A. Yamamoto, W.-M. Yao,

G.P. Zeller, O.V. Zenin, J. Zhang, R.-Y. Zhu, F. Zimmermann, P.A. Zyla

Technical Associates:

G. Harper, V.S. Lugovsky, P. Schaffner

c2014 Regents of the University of California

The full Review lists all the data, with references, used in obtainingthe values given in the Particle Summary Tables. It also containsmuch additional information. Some of the material that does appearin this Booklet is only an abbreviated version of what appears in thefull Review.

2

PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Physical constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. Astrophysical constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Summary Tables of Particle Physics

Gauge and Higgs bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Leptons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Quarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Mesons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Baryons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179Tests of conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

Reviews, Tables, and Plots

9. Quantum chromodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18810. Electroweak model and constraints on new physics . . 19111. Status of Higgs boson physics . . . . . . . . . . . . 20012. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix . . 20113. CP violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20814. Neutrino mass, mixing and oscillations . . . . . . . . 21115. Quark model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21816. Grand unified theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22119. Structure functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22622. Big-bang cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23124. The cosmological parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 23725. Dark matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24126. Dark energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24427. Cosmic microwave background . . . . . . . . . . . 24528. Cosmic rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24829. Accelerator physics of colliders . . . . . . . . . . . 24930. High-energy collider parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 25032. Passage of particles through matter . . . . . . . . . 25133. Particle detectors at accelerators . . . . . . . . . . 26634. Particle detectors for non-accelerator physics . . . . . 27835. Radioactivity and radiation protection . . . . . . . . 28536. Commonly used radioactive sources . . . . . . . . . . 28737. Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28938. Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29343. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, spherical harmonics,

and d functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30746. Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30948. Cross-section formulae for specific processes . . . . . 31850. Plots of cross sections and related quantities . . . . . 3236. Atomic and nuclear properties of materials . . . . . . 3244. Periodic table of the elements . . . . . . inside back cover

Abridged from the full Review of Particle Physics.

3

The following are found only in the full Review and on the Web:

http://pdg.lbl.gov

3. International System of Units (SI)5. Electronic structure of the elements7. Electromagnetic relations8. Naming scheme for hadrons

17. Heavy-quark & soft-collinear effective theory18. Lattice quantum chromodynamics20. Fragmentation functions in e+e, ep and pp collisions21. Experimental tests of gravitational theory23. Big-bang nucleosynthesis31. Neutrino beam lines at proton synchrotrons39. Monte Carlo techniques40. Monte Carlo event generators41. Monte Carlo neutrino event generators42. Monte Carlo particle numbering scheme44. SU(3) isoscalar factors and representation matrices45. SU(n) multiplets and Young diagrams47. Resonances49. Neutrino cross-section measurements

41.Physica

lco

nsta

nts

Table 1.1. Reviewed 2013 by P.J. Mohr (NIST). The set of constants excluding the last group (which come from the Particle Data Group) isrecommended by CODATA for international use. The 1- uncertainties in the last digits are given in parentheses after the values. See the fulledition of this Review for references and further explanation.

Quantity Symbol, equation Value Uncertainty (ppb)

speed of light in vacuum c 299 792 458 m s1 exact

Planck constant h 6.626 069 57(29)1034 J s 44Planck constant, reduced ~ h/2 1.054 571 726(47)1034 J s 44

= 6.582 119 28(15)1022 MeV s 22electron charge magnitude e 1.602 176 565(35)1019 C = 4.803 204 50(11)1010 esu 22, 22conversion constant ~c 197.326 9718(44) MeV fm 22conversion constant (~c)2 0.389 379 338(17) GeV2 mbarn 44

electron mass me 0.510 998 928(11) MeV/c2 = 9.109 382 91(40)1031 kg 22, 44

proton mass mp 938.272 046(21) MeV/c2 = 1.672 621 777(74)1027 kg 22, 44

= 1.007 276 466 812(90) u = 1836.152 672 45(75) me 0.089, 0.41deuteron mass md 1875.612 859(41) MeV/c

2 22unified atomic mass unit (u) (mass 12C atom)/12 = (1 g)/(NA mol) 931.494 061(21) MeV/c

2 = 1.660 538 921(73)1027 kg 22, 44

permittivity of free space 0 = 1/0c2 8.854 187 817 . . . 1012 F m1 exact

permeability of free space 0 4 107 N A2 = 12.566 370 614 . . . 107 N A2 exact

fine-structure constant = e2/40~c 7.297 352 5698(24)103 = 1/137.035 999 074(44) 0.32, 0.32

classical electron radius re = e2/40mec

2 2.817 940 3267(27)1015 m 0.97(e Compton wavelength)/2 e = ~/mec = re

1 3.861 592 6800(25)1013 m 0.65Bohr radius (mnucleus = ) a = 40~

2/mee2 = re

2 0.529 177 210 92(17)1010 m 0.32wavelength of 1 eV/c particle hc/(1 eV

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