reading and listening comprehension

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  1. 1. Reading and Listening Comprehension By: BIOINFORMATICS Sem 5, Sec F Manish Kumar BTF/13/101 Keya Agarwal BTF/13/102 BIOTECHNOLOGY Sem 5, Sec D Mohit Rana BTBM/13/213 Sukriti Singh BTBM/13/242
  2. 2. Reading without comprehension or understanding is not reading. Many children can pronounce words fluently but asked what they have just read, they are unable to respond. Although they may score high in teams of reading rate or fluency, they are not really Good readers.
  3. 3. What makes you a good reader. A good reader is someone who has a purpose for reading, whether it is to look for specific information or to read for pleasure. A good reader is involved in a Complicated thinking process as she/he reads. These are strategies that we can Teach children to help them become purpose full, active readers. Research has Shown that readers who receive explicit instruction in these strategies make Significant gains on reading comprehension tests. These strategies include setting purposes for reading, Making Productions, motivating reading and realizing when Something is not making sense, questioning during reading, making mental pictures of what is being read, understanding story structure, and summarizing what is read.
  4. 4. Make Predictions Prediction encourage active reading and keep children interested, weather or not the predictions are correct. Instruct Children: Look at the pictures, table of contents, chapter headings, maps, diagrams, and features. What subjects are in the book? Write down predictions about the text. During reading, look for words or phases from those predictions. While reading, revise the predictions or make new ones.
  5. 5. Visualize Many children think visually, using shape, spatial relationships, movement, and colours, and can benefit greatly from visualizing what is happening as they read. From a picture of character or the setting in your mind. Add details to writers description. Imagine a friction story is like a movie taking place in your head. Imagine the characters features. Picture the plot in the time and space. Imagine processes and explanations happening visually. Use nouns, verbs, and adjectives to create pictures, diagrams, or other mental images. Use the graphic organizers to show information. Make sketches or diagrams on scrap paper.
  6. 6. Ask and Answer Questions Having children from their own questions helps them recognize confusion and encourages active learning. Instruct Children: Before reading, think about the subject based on the title, chapter heads, and visual information. Make note of anything you are curious about. While reading, pause and think about or write down any questions. Be sure to ask questions if you are confused or unsure of something. Look for the answers while reading. Pause and write down the answers. Were all the questions answered? Could the answers come from other sourses?
  7. 7. WRITING What Is Writing? Writing is thinking with a pencil Writing is a premier way in which children think and express their ideas Writing is a way children express creativity, uniqueness, and indicate what they want Writing well and succinctly is increasingly important as children get older
  8. 8. An environment that supports writing (with space for children to write and the tools to do so) Teachers who read with a writers eye (so they can point out strategies that young writers used effectively) Teachers who model good instruction (so children will see how one goes about writing) Lots of opportunities to practice, accompanied by corrective feedback (praise the expressive aspect of the task, while helping the child form letters and write accurately and well) Elements of good instruction
  9. 9. Schools of education need to offer pre-service teachers experience in learning what good writing is, how to teach writing, and knowledge about the genres of writing (e.g., expository vs. narrative writing ) Schools need a greater focus on evaluation, so we can identify good writing and support children as they develop their skills Current challenges in the field
  10. 10. Automatic operations of writing Writing is like juggling a lot of balls in the air If you have automatic mastery of some of the basics, you can focus more attention on the demanding complex reasoning skills
  11. 11. Too often seen as the poor relation of language arts instruction Accurate spelling is a courtesy to the reader Spelling knowledge is very closely associated with reading comprehension. Spelling is a way of being word conscious, which is associated with knowing word meaning and comprehension which results in better writing Those who spell well are more likely to write longer and better structured compositions as they move into the higher levels of written expression Spelling
  12. 12. When do spelling errors denote a problem? Individual aptitude for spelling varies. However, poor spelling is a hallmark of dyslexia. Watch for: difficulty beginning to emerge from first grade on inability to spell the highest-frequency words continued invented spelling even after good instruction and practice spelling words in a dysphonic way (with little correspondence between the sounds that are in a word and the spelling) inability to remember a letter sequence and difficulty with speech sounds lack of strategies for thinking about words
  13. 13. Listening Listening comprehension refers to the understanding of the implications and explicit meanings of words and sentences of spoken language. Listening Comprehension (receptive language) is basically how well one understands what is being conveyed and has two distinct parts: Perception: perceiving the signal as it is given Comprehension: understanding of the message conveyed.
  14. 14. Auditory Attention Auditory Memory Auditory Perception Comprehension - making connections to previous learning Attention and memory are skills necessary for perception and comprehension to occur. Listening Comprehension Skills
  15. 15. Listening Comprehension: Classroom Examples Throughout the school day, students must be able to follow directions, which requires: listening to direction/s (single or multiple steps) keeping direction/s in mind executing direction/s comprehend questions (synthesize/understand questions related to academic content) listen and comprehend in order to learn (oral presentation of stories, lectures, classroom dialogue, etc.) * Behavior difficulties may be an indication of difficulty with listening comprehension.
  16. 16. Brain activation for reading and listening comprehension: An fMRI study of modality effects and individual differences in language comprehension The study compared the brain activation patterns associated with the comprehension of written and spoken Portuguese sentences. An fMRI study measured brain activity while participants read and listened to sentences about general world knowledge. Participants had to decide if the sentences were true or false. To mirror the transient nature of spoken sentences, visual input was presented in rapid serial visual presentation format. The results showed a common core of amoral left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri activation, as well as modality specific c brain activation associated with listening and reading comprehension
  17. 17. Reading comprehension was associated with more left-lateralized activation and with left inferior occipital cortex (including fusiform gyrus) activation. Listening comprehension was associated with extensive bilateral temporal cortex activation and more overall activation of the whole cortex. Readers with lower working memory capacity showed more activation of right-hemisphere areas (spill over of activation) and more activation in the prefrontal cortex, potentially associated with more demand placed on executive control processes. The activation of this network may be associated with phonological rehearsal of linguistic information when reading text presented in rapid serial visual format.
  18. 18. CONCLUSION The connection between reading and writing is strong and well accepted by many educators (Routman, 2003; Tierney & Pearson, 1983). Reading and writing need to be integrated to improve the quality of each. Writing summaries, examining texts from multiple perspectives, utilizing graphic organizers, and making use of discussion journals are valuable tools for linking reading and writing to strengthen student comprehension. Gammill (2006) states Writing to learn, to build comprehension and understanding, is a method any teacher in any area can implement and use successfully with students. The four writing strategies discussed in this article are ones teachers can use in any subject area to help their students gain more from texts and help them build their comprehension skills.

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