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  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesISSN 2307-8235 (online)IUCN 2008: T19513A8944391

    Rhinoderma darwinii, Darwin's Frog

    Assessment by: Carmen beda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Nez, Esteban Lavilla

    View on www.iucnredlist.org

    Citation: Carmen beda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Nez, Esteban Lavilla. 2010. Rhinodermadarwinii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T19513A8944391.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en

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  • Taxonomy

    Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

    Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Cycloramphidae

    Taxon Name:Rhinoderma darwinii Dumril & Bibron, 1841

    Common Name(s):

    English: Darwin's Frog Spanish: Rana Narigona, Ranita De Darwin, Sapito Partero, Sapito Vaquero

    Taxonomic Source(s):

    Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014).New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html. (Accessed: 27January 2014).

    Assessment Information

    Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ace ver 3.1

    Year Published: 2010

    Date Assessed: November 17, 2008


    Listed as Vulnerable because of an observed population decline, estimated to be more than 30% overthe last ten years, based on a reduction in area of occupancy, habitat destruction and degradation, andpossibly other unidentified threats.

    Previously Published Red List Assessments

    2004 Vulnerable (VU)

    1996 Data Deficient (DD)

    1994 Vulnerable (V)

    Geographic Range

    Range Description:

    This species is endemic to the austral forest of Chile and Argentina. Historically, it was distributed inChile from Concepcin Province to Palena Province. In Argentina, it is known from Neuqun and RoNegro provinces. It has an altitudinal range of 50-1,100 m asl.

    Country Occurrence:

    Native: Argentina; Chile

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Rhinoderma darwinii published in 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en


  • Distribution Map

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Rhinoderma darwinii published in 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en


  • PopulationRecent surveys within the range of Rhinoderma darwinii in Chile reveal that some populations (includingthose in national parks and other preserved areas) have disappeared entirely (M. Crump and A. Velosopers. comm.). In other areas, the density of frogs is much lower than 10 or 20 years ago (M. Crump pers.comm.). Forestry operations have destroyed large areas where northern populations were found.However, it was still abundant in at least some southern Chilean localities in 2003; indeed, it appearsthat the species reaches its highest densities in regions of the Archipelago, where habitat disturbance isminimal (M. Crump pers. comm.). In Argentina, this is a scarce species and appears to have declined atone site (Puerto Blest, Ro Negro Province) during the past 50 years.

    Current Population Trend:Decreasing

    Habitat and Ecology (see Appendix for additional information)It generally occurs in the leaf-litter of temperate Nothofagus forests; it is also present in forest bogs.Females deposit eggs in the leaf-litter. When the larvae inside the eggs begin to move, adult malesingest the eggs and incubate them in vocal sacs. Larvae develop inside the male and emerge aftermetamorphosis. The species is not tolerant of habitat disturbance.

    Systems:Terrestrial, Freshwater

    Threats (see Appendix for additional information)In the north, the main threats are drought and pine forestry, while in the south it is clear-cutting offorest. Declines that have taken place in suitable habitat could be the result of other threats, such asclimate change or disease (possibly chytridiomycosis, although this normally impacts species that areassociated with water, and it has not previously been reported from Chile).

    Conservation Actions (see Appendix for additional information)There are several protected areas in the range of the species, though there remains a need for improvedmaintenance and protection of native forest habitats, particularly in the north. Close populationmonitoring of this species is required given the declines seen in suitable habitat. In Chile, it is listed as"Endangered" (En Peligro de Extincin) (Reglamento de la Ley de Caza, Chile, 1998).


    Assessor(s): Carmen beda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Nez, Esteban Lavilla

    Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson,Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Rhinoderma darwinii published in 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en


  • BibliographyBusse, K. 1970. Care of the young by male Rhinoderma darwini. Copeia: 395.

    Busse, K. 1991. Bemerkungen zum Fortpflanzungsverhalten und zur Zucht von Rhinoderma darwinii.Herpetofauna: 11-21.

    Cei, J.M. 1962. Batracios de Chile. Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile.

    Cei, J.M. 1980. Amphibians of Argentina. Monitore Zoologico Italiano N.S. Monografia.

    Daz-Pez, H. and Ortiz, J.C. 2003. Evaluacin del estado de conservacin de los anfibios en Chile.Assessment of the conservation status of amphibians in Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76:509-525.

    Formas, J.R. 1995. Anfibios. In: Simonetti, J.M., Arroyo, T.K., Spotorno, A. and Loz, E. (eds), DiversidadBiolgica de Chile, Comisin nacional de ciencia y tecnologa (CONICYT), Santiago-Chile.

    Glade, A. 1993. Red List of Chilean Terrestrial vertebrates. Corporacin nacional forestal (CONAF),Santiago-Chile.

    IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org.(Accessed: 29 June 2010).

    Jorquera, B. 1986. Biologa de la reproduccin del gnero Rhinoderma. Anales del Museo de HistoriaNatural. Valparaso, Chile: 53-62.

    Jorquera, B., Garrido, O. and Pugn, E. 1982. Comparative studies of the digestive tract developmentbetween Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum. Journal of Herpetology: 204-214.

    Jorquera, B., Pugn, E. and Goicoechea, O. 1972. Tabla de desarrollo normal de Rhinoderma darwini.Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria: 5-19.

    Lavilla, E.O. 1987. La Larva de Rhinoderma darwinii D. and B. (Anura: Rhinodermatidae). Acta ZoologicaLilloana: 81-88.

    Lavilla, E.O., Ponssa, M.L., Baldo, D., Basso, N., Bosso, A., Cspedez, J., Chebez, J.C., Faivovich, J., Ferrari,L., Lajmanovich, R., Langone, J.A., Peltzer, P., beda, C., Vaira, M. and Vera Candioti, F. 2000.Categorizacin de los Anfibios de Argentina. Categorizacin de los Anfibios y Reptiles de la RepblicaArgentina: 11-34.

    Servicio Agrcola Ganadero. 1998. Cartilla de caza. Imp. I. Flores, Santiago de Chile.

    Veloso, A. 1998. Variabilidad gentica y distribucin geogrfica de Rhinoderma darwinii (Amphibia,Rhinodermatidae). Simposio Darwin en Chilo. Reflexiones sobre Historia, Ecologa y Evolucin. 22 al 26de noviembre de 1998, Ancud, Chilo, Chile.

    Veloso, A. and Navarro, J. 1988. Lista Sistemtica y distribucin geogrfica de anfibios y reptiles de Chile.Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali - Torino: 481-539.

    CitationCarmen beda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Nez, Esteban Lavilla. 2010. Rhinoderma darwinii. The IUCNRed List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T19513A8944391. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Rhinoderma darwinii published in 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en


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    External ResourcesFor Images and External Links to Additional Information, please see the Red List website.

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Rhinoderma darwinii published in 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T19513A8944391.en


  • Appendix


    Habitat Season Suitability MajorImportance?

    1. Forest -> 1.3. Forest - Subantarctic - Suitable Yes

    1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate - Suitable Yes

    5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps,Fens, Peatlands

    - Suitable Yes


    Threat Timing Scope Severity Impact Score

    1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1.Housing & urban areas

    Ongoing - - -