Public-Private Partnerships and Supply Chain Security: C-TPAT as an Indicator of Relational Security
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<ul><li><p>PublicPrivate Partnerships and Supply Chain Security: C-TPATas an Indicator of Relational SecurityM. Douglas Voss1 and Zachary Williams2</p><p>1University of Central Arkansas2Central Michigan University</p><p>F ollowing the attacks of September 11th, public and private entities recognized a need to protect the global supply chain from terrorist dis-ruption. In response to this need, the U.S. Government partnered with industry to create the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism(C-TPAT) program. This research investigates the publicprivate partnership (PPP) relational aspects of C-TPAT. C-TPAT encourages firms tovoluntarily improve their security competence and that of their supply chain partners. We introduce the concept of relational security in thecontext of PPPs. We define relational security as all activities that establish, cultivate, and maintain successful security exchanges between par-ties. We establish C-TPAT as one indicator of relational security by demonstrating its ability to establish, cultivate, and maintain successfulsecurity exchanges between parties. Results indicate certified firms outperform noncertified firms in security performance, firm performance, andresilience.</p><p>Keywords: publicprivate partnerships; supply chain; security; C-TPAT; performance; relational security</p><p>INTRODUCTION</p><p>Following the attacks of September 11th, public and private enti-ties recognized a need to protect the global supply chain fromterrorist intrusion. Beyond the loss of human life, supply chaindisruptions can have other negative impacts. These includedecreased revenue and customer satisfaction resulting fromdelayed deliveries as well as decreased brand equity if customerperceptions of the firm are altered. Hendricks and Singhal (2005)demonstrate these impacts can significantly devalue the affectedfirms stock price.</p><p>Efforts to control supply chain security are hampered by thecomplexity, size, and interdependency of the network (Speieret al. 2011). The complexity and increased length inherent toglobal supply chains, coupled with the need to maintain an effi-cient and effective flow of goods, necessitated an innovativeresponse. Transaction cost analysis (TCA) (Williamson 1985;Rindfleisch and Heide 1997) would argue that the U.S. Govern-ment (USG) could have structured the security response in sev-eral ways. First, the USG could insource security by placingsecurity personnel at every firm, similar to the TransportationSecurity Administration in airports. However, such an actionwould have been prohibitively expensive and difficult to enforceoutside the United States. Second, the USG could rely on marketforces by asking firms to employ proper security measures andproviding incentives based on measurable security performanceoutcomes. However, security performance outcomes are notori-ously hard to measure in the absence of a security incident. Thedetermination was made that a hybrid governance mechanismbased upon publicprivate partnership (PPP) between the USGand private firms was necessary. The formalization of this PPP</p><p>strategy was embodied in the Customs-Trade Partnership AgainstTerrorism (C-TPAT) (Kleindorfer and Saad 2005).</p><p>C-TPAT is administered through U.S. Customs and BorderProtection (CBP), a division of the U.S. Department of Home-land Security (DHS). CBP describes C-TPAT as a, voluntarygovernment/private sector partnership programfor securing glo-bal supply chains and facilitating legitimate cargo and convey-ances (U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2004, 1112). C-TPAT seeks to create a critical mass of supply chain security.This is accomplished by ensuring certified firms employ propersecurity measures and requiring their supply chain partners toincrease security as well. In this way, C-TPAT is able to reachbeyond certified firms to more widely implement security bestpractices in nonparticipating companies on a global basis.</p><p>PPPs have been applied in many contexts outside of securityincluding transportation, education, construction, and financialmanagement (Wettenhall 2003; Stewart et al. 2009). Their con-tinued application is a function of past PPP success. Onemeasure of C-TPATs success is the growth of certified firms.C-TPAT was proposed in November 2001 and implemented inApril 2002 (Sheu et al. 2006). By November 2004, its member-ship had grown to 7,400 partners (U.S. Customs and Border Pro-tection 2004). This number increased to 10,572 by July 2013,41% of whom were domestic importers, 29% carriers (motor,rail, sea, and air), 12% foreign manufacturers, 9% third-partylogistics, 8% customs brokers, and 0.6% marine port authoritiesand terminal operators (U.S. Customs and Border Protection2013).</p><p>Stewart et al. (2009) have called for research defining theeffects of PPPs on firm performance. Conflicting evidence existsregarding the private sector benefits of C-TPAT (Furia et al.2011). C-TPAT implementation can be expensive and its benefitsmay be hard to quantify because it is difficult to assess the num-ber of prevented security events or their effects. Few works haveinvestigated the impact of security measures on performance.Even fewer have specifically examined the impact of C-TPATcertification on performance.</p><p>Corresponding author:M. Douglas Voss, Department of Marketing and Management, Uni-versity of Central Arkansas, 312 Business Administration Building,Conway, AR 72035, USA; E-mail: email@example.com</p><p>Journal of Business Logistics, 2013, 34(4): 320334 Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals</p></li><li><p>The purpose of this study was to explore performance differ-ences associated with C-TPAT certification. We specificallydetermine whether C-TPAT is associated with reduced securitybreach severity, improved security performance, greater resil-ience, and improved firm performance. In doing so, the conceptof relational security is introduced and C-TPAT is positioned asan indicator of relational security. Relational security is definedas all activities that establish, cultivate, and maintain successfulsecurity exchanges between parties. We establish that C-TPAT isdesigned to promote security exchanges between parties andexamine whether these relationships are related to successful out-comes.</p><p>The following sections review literature related to risk, supplychain security, PPPs, and C-TPAT. Hypotheses are then pre-sented followed by a description of the method, results, andimplications. Finally, conclusions and future research opportuni-ties are discussed.</p><p>LITERATURE REVIEW</p><p>Risk and supply chain security</p><p>Terrorism, theft, damage, or insertion of unauthorized cargo rep-resent a significant, and deliberate risk facing supply chains(Kleindorfer and Saad 2005). As the risk of terrorism increasesso must firm efforts to counter that risk (Christopher and Lee2004). Supply chain security is defined as, The application ofpolicies, procedures, and technology to protect supply chainassets (product, facilities, equipment, information, and personnel)from theft, damage, or terrorism, and to prevent the introductionof unauthorized contraband, people, or weapons of mass destruc-tion into the supply chain (Closs and McGarrell 2004, 8).</p><p>Security and risk are closely related but distinct concepts. Spe-ier et al. (2011) highlight the differences. Risk is the extent thatsupply chain activities are variable and susceptible to disruptionleading to negative outcomes (Zsidisin 2003; Zsidisin and Ellram2003). Supply chain security helps mitigate risk and render thesupply chain more sustainable (Speier et al. 2011). Firms cannotcompletely mitigate every risk and depend on other firms tomanage their own risks appropriately. These efforts are compli-cated by the interdependency and lean inventory levels found inglobal supply chains. Should a security event occur, the conse-quences are felt by dependent partners and exacerbated by a lackof spare resources. Therefore, when supply chains operate in alean manner, the interconnectedness of the global supply chaininfrastructure actually increases vulnerability to security events(Perrow 1984; Speier et al. 2011). This highlights the need for aprogram such as C-TPAT that provides standardized security rec-ommendations as a governmental response to global supply chainsecurity challenges.</p><p>The role of government and C-TPAT</p><p>Firms implement security measures for a number of reasons.Williams et al. (2009a) propose that firms are driven to imple-ment security measures due to coercive, normative, and mimeticpressures. Coercive pressures are those originating from custom-ers or the government. However, the USG has taken a more col-</p><p>laborative role as well. Following September 11th, 2001 theUSG was compelled to design a program that would create acritical mass of security throughout the supply chain and devisea governance mechanism to ensure firms employ proper securitymeasures. In designing this mechanism, they would be facedwith three basic options: (1) insource security by dictating spe-cific security measures and placing USG enforcement personnelat every firm; (2) outsource security by relying on all firms toimplement security initiatives on their own; or (3) rely on ahybrid mechanism such as a partnership between firms and theUSG. Their decision of which governance mechanism to employcan be described using TCA and juxtaposed against real-worldconstraints.</p><p>TCA is based on the notion that hierarchies and markets repre-sent two governance structures that vary in their level of transac-tion costs (Coase 1937). Transaction costs are those expensesinherent to a chosen governance mechanism in a given system andinclude ex ante costs (constructing and negotiating contractualarrangements) as well as ex post costs (monitoring the actors andenforcing compliance) (Rindfleisch and Heide 1997). Ex ante costsincrease as decision makers, subject to bounded rationality andenvironmental uncertainty, are unable to completely predict futurecontingencies (Williamson 1985). To compensate, the decisionmakers attempt to construct increasingly costly, complicated, andcomplete contracts that protect against all possible future events.Ex post costs increase as behavior becomes more uncertain and itbecomes more difficult to monitor and determine performance lev-els of those on whom the decision maker depends.</p><p>Decision makers will outsource and rely on market mecha-nisms when future contingencies are predictable (i.e., environ-mental uncertainty is low) and performance is easily monitored(i.e., behavioral uncertainty is low). Alternatively, they are morelikely to insource functions as it becomes more difficult to detailall future contingencies (i.e., environmental uncertainty is high)and performance becomes more difficult to monitor (i.e., behav-ioral uncertainty is high) (Anderson 1985).</p><p>The global supply chain is dynamic and diverse. Some partici-pants disregard their security obligations due to opportunisticactions or feelings of invulnerability (Wathne and Heide 2000;Williams et al. 2008; Voss et al. 2009b). Furthermore, securityperformance outcomes are difficult to measure in the absence of asecurity incident. This would imply that some insourcing of thesecurity function is required as both environmental and behavioraluncertainties are high. However, without completely crippling allU.S. trade, the USG is unable to legally enforce security regula-tions on firms outside its borders or place security personnel attheir facilities. Only other members of the supply chain coulddemand security compliance from their trading partners. Therefore,the USG had to rely on market mechanisms to some degree and ahybrid governance structure was required.</p><p>Relational governance is a hybrid governance structure thatsupports the concepts embedded in C-TPAT (Heide 1994). Morespecifically, C-TPAT developed as a PPP between the USG andprivate entities. C-TPAT reduces transaction costs to the USG byplacing a greater burden on industry to enforce security imple-mentation while also providing the USG a degree of hierarchicalcontrol over security implementation. Transaction costs arereduced for participating firms via reduced wait time and vari-ability at border crossings (Furia et al. 2011).</p><p>PPPs, C-TPAT, and Relational Security 321</p></li><li><p>Sheffi (2001) calls for executives to begin considering thegovernment as a partner in their security efforts. C-TPAT isbased on past, successful joint efforts between CBP and industrypartners and asks for firms commitment to improve supply chainsecurity to gain benefits including reduced inspections and expe-dited shipment processing (Bakir 2008). Once certified, firms aregranted access to the benefits of C-TPAT including Free AndSecure Trade (FAST) lane priority at border crossings and use ofthe Automated Targeting Systemwhich seeks to determineshipment risk and whether an inspection is required (Bakir 2008)and NonIntrusive Inspection technology to speed processing(Russell and Saldanha 2003). These and other benefits of C-TPAT certification are provided in Table 1 (U.S. Customs andBorder Protection 2004).</p><p>Publicprivate partnerships</p><p>PPPs are not a new phenomenon. Historical cooperationbetween governments and private entities include private taxcollectors in the Bible, private English citizens cleaning publi-cally owned street lamps in the 1700s, privately owned rail-ways in the 1800s, and Sir Francis Drakes extensive use ofprivate vessels to best the Spanish Armada in the 1500s(Hodge and Greve 2007). Publicprivate interaction is also notunusual in a supply chain management context. Public and pri-vate entities are involved in various supply chains, which oftenintersect leading to collaboration (Stewart et al. 2009).</p><p>Several definitions of PPPs exist. PPPs are defined by theNational Council for PublicPrivate Partnerships, as a contrac-tual agreement between a public agency (federal, state, or local)and a private sector entity. Through this agreement, the skillsand assets of each sector are shared in delivering a service orfacility for the use of the general public. In addition to the shar-ing of resources, each party shares in the risks and rewardspotential in the delivery of the service and/or facility (NCPPP:National Center for Public-Private Partnerships 2008). ThroughPPPs, public agencies attempt to protect the interests of the pop-ulation by sharing risk while increasing accountability and trans-parency (Stewart et al. 2009).</p><p>This study utilizes Van Ham and Koppenjans (2001) definitionof PPPs who view them as, cooperation of some sort of durabilitybetween public and private actors in which they jointly developproducts and (or) services and share risks, costs, and resourceswhich are connected to these products (p. 598). This definitionhighlights that PPPs involve: (1) long-term cooperation; (2) risk-sharing; (3) joint production of some product or service; and (4)mutual gain (Hodge and Greve 2007). C-TPAT fits this definition.First, the USG and its industry partners have expectation of long-term cooperation. The USG conducts a detailed review of ap...</p></li></ul>
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