psy 302: substance abuse chapter 9: drug trafficking

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  • PSY 302: SUBSTANCE ABUSEChapter 9:Drug Trafficking

  • The Terrorism ConnectionTerrorist groups and organized crime (drug cartels) have similar requirements for moving people, money, material, weapons, etc. across bordersNarcoterrorismTerrorists acts carried out by groups that are directly or indirectly involved in cultivating, manufacturing, transporting, or distributing illegal drugsMutually beneficial for drug traffickers and terrorists

  • Narco-Terrorism*Known terrorist organizations trafficking drugs fund operations, gain recruits, expertiseColombia Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia (AUC) PeruAfghanistan, Pakistan - Taliban

  • The Terrorism Connection*Narco-statesAfghanistanPakistanBurmaColombiaPeru BoliviaMexico

  • The Terrorism Connection*Fine line between drug trafficking and terrorismTaliban insurgents in AfghanistanSoutheast Asias Golden Triangle

  • The Terrorism ConnectionCompartmentalizationVarying levels within an organization with specific goals and responsibilities related to these goals

    Compartmentalized Organization

  • The French ConnectionInternational Drug TraffickingLong-time problem

  • Drug Trafficking into the USOnly about 15-20% of narcotics are seized Why? 1. Enormous amount of entry points a. Thousands of inlets and roads 2. All Caribbean Islands are less than 2,000 miles from Miami a. most are less than 2,000 miles from Washington DC

  • Colombia Drug TradeThe only country in the world where the three main plant-based drugs cocaine, heroin, and marijuana are grown in significant amountsColombia is the only South American country that has both the Pacific and Caribbean coastlines

  • Colombia Drug TradeThese illegal drugs are being shipped to foreign countries including the US, and sold there for big $$$Colombia is the worlds largest drug producing countries, and produces 90% of the worlds cocaineLarge, ruthless criminal groups that organize drug trafficking, and commit serious crimes including kidnapping and murder to anyone who gets in their wayNot only do these groups deal with government organizations, but they are also competing against rival groups in the country

  • Colombian Drug TradeColombia didnt start supplying marijuana to excess until the late 1960sThe origin of the marijuana boom can be traced to a search by US consumers for a new supply source of marijuanaThe new Colombian drug lords soon took over the producing and distributing of the marijuana that was produced in ColombiaDuring the 1970's the Colombian Drug Lords began focusing their attention on supplying a vast amount of cocaine In the late 1980's when law enforcement began to crack down on the transporting of coca base to Colombia, the Colombians began planting and growing there own coca plants Cocaine can be transported much more easily and has a much higher profit than does marijuanaMarijuanaCocaine

  • Colombia Drug TradeColumbia-based cocaine trafficking groups in the United States operate through compartmentalized structureCell: Compartmentalization involves cells with about ten members, each operating independently; operates within a geographic area, the head of each cell reports directly to a controllerController: Responsible for overall operations of the several cells within a regionCentral Command: oversees and coordinates operations through the controllers

  • Heroin Trafficking in ColombiaBy 1999, Colombia had become major heroin wholesalersGave free sample of their high purity heroin to their cocaine buyersStrategy workedThe high purity heroin permits it to be prepared for smoking, ridding the product of the dirty needle (high risk for HIV+) reputation

  • Mexico Drug TradeMexican drug trafficking organizations control most of US drug marketVaried transportation routesAdvanced communicationsStrong affiliations with US gangs

  • Mexico Drug Trade60,000 suspicious transactions in a 12-month period Only aproximately 300 of these transactions go through litigationBanking controls are laxInefficient legal system due to the consequential life threatening fearDrug cartels are glamorized

  • Mexico Drug TradeThe Two MexicosWar on drugsMexican government with aid from USWar for control of drugsCorrupt police and military fight for their share of the drug businessBowden (2009)Mexico Prison Break: 53 Walk Out While Guards Do Nothing. Click on picture

  • Mexico Drug TradeNow 45,000 troops involved in addition to state and federal police forces2008: plans announced to double size of Federal Policepurging local police forces of corrupt officersmassive police recruiting and training effort

  • Mexico Drug TradeDrug Cartel militarization and the Mexican governments military response have resulted in fierce gun battlesGunmen have refused to surrender and have ambushed soldiers and police officersContinued corruption of local police departments with honest police assassinated

  • Mexican-Colombian DealIn early 1990s, Mexicans struck a deal with Colombians whose cocaine they were moving from Mexico into USFor every 2 kilograms of smuggled Colombian cocaine, Mexicans could keep 1 kilogram as paymentAided by new legislationLed to structural changes: Compartmentalization

  • Mexico: MethamphetamineLatecomers to the trade, Mexican drug organizations became dominant in the manufacture and distribution of methamphetamineProfits substantial ten-fold return on investmentMexican restrictions on ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine resulted in decrease production and resultant decrease in drug trade to USLed to relocation of production in US

  • Mexico: MarijuanaAs opposed to instability of US heroin and cocaine markets, marijuana continues to be active drug tradeVery profitableOften just dumped over the border Laws lessened smuggling but simply relocated cartel harvest to US sideResult has been pollution issues, poisoning of animals, etc.

  • Economy Drug Trade Analyze Colombia EconomyUnemployment rate:14.2% Population below poverty line: 55% Drug ProblemNew productions and imports of marijuanaCocaine being produced in ColombiaDrug smugglers supplying the world with massive amounts of drugsMexican EconomyUnemployment: 3.7% Population below poverty line:40%

    Drug Problemgangland killings have reached 5,376117 percent increase of deaths have occurred in the last year

  • Golden TriangleThe Golden Triangle of Southeast Asia encompasses approximately 150,000 square miles of forested highlands, including the western fringe of Laos, the four northern provinces of Thailand, and the northeastern parts of MyanmarWeak, corrupt governmentsDozens of armed ethnic guerrilla groupsIntense heroin and methamphetamine traffickingGolden Triangle heroin also feeds a sizable addict population in ChinaHuman traffickers mules

  • Golden CrescentThe Golden Crescent of Southwest Asia includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of IranOut of control opium growing leading to Afghanistan as worlds biggest producer of opiumTraffickers stronger than law enforcementGrowing domestic market for heroin in PakistanRapidly growing, and poverty-stricken populationEasy access to heroin is leading to expanding addict population and drug organizationsAntidrug efforts have been futile

  • Domestic Drug BusinessGoldstein (1985)Norm violations result in violenceThree types related to drug businessPharmacological Violence: Violence induced by the pharmacological properties of the drug itselfEconomic-Compulsive Violence: Violence associated with efforts to obtain money to finance the high cost of illicit drugsSystemic Violence: Violence associated with traditionally aggressive patterns of interaction within the system of drug distribution and use

  • Systemic ViolencePenalties for street level norm violationsDeath is usual punishment for a norm violationTeenagers may be given lesser punishmentsGun shot woundsPithing

  • Open-Air MarketsRepresent the lowest level of the drug distribution networkFew barriers to access, and anyone who looks like a plausible buyer will be able to purchase drugsOpen-air drug markets operate in geographically well-defined areas at identifiable times so buyers and sellers can locate one another with ease. A variety of drugs may be sold, most commonly to include: heroin, crack, cocaine, and marijuanaStreet-Level Drug Business

  • Street-Level Drug BusinessOpen-Air Markets Enforcement IssuesDisplacement This often occurs after arrests are made; many new drug dealers ready to replace the one arrestedClusteringSome believe its better to have competition; leads to larger customer base; affords protection from law enforcement that isolated dealing does not

  • Domestic Drug BusinessRural areas present their own issuesProduction of methamphetamine prevalent in rural AmericaMeth labs often located in rural areas and usually set up and run by local residents similar to the operation of small-scale production and distribution of moonshine whiskey during the Prohibition EraNazi method: Outlaw chemists have been stealing anhydrous ammonia, normally used for fertilizer, for converting it into methamphetamine

  • Domestic Drug BusinessLSD made by about a dozen chemistsJust these few chemists are believed to be manufacturing nearly all of the LSD available in the United StatesSome have probably been operating since the 1960sCooks and traffickers work together to distribute LSD throughout the US

  • Domestic Drug BusinessMoney LaunderingThe process of concealing the source of money obtained by illicit meansThree methodsPlacementLayeringIntegration

  • Money LaunderingPlacementThe initial movement of criminally d