Pineapple Jai Prakash

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<p>Production Technology of Pineapple In Tripura</p> <p>Dr Jai PrakashDivision of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, IARI New Delhi Email:</p> <p>Introduction Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the commercial fruit crops of India and its cultivation is the age-old practice in North Eastern Hill Region of India. The beauty and virtue of this Golden Queen have been extolled by many poets all over the Globe. Pineapple has all qualities required for being an ideal fruit crop for North Eastern India. The name Ananas, which later became the generic name, is derived from Tupi Indian name Nana. Pineapple is a unique fruit for its beauty of appearance, delicate fragrance and excellent flavour.</p> <p>COMPOSITION AND USES Pineapple is considered as one of the most important tropical fruits. It is an important part of people particularly in south, east and North Eastern India. Pineapple fruit is rich source of sugar, vitamins and minerals. Pineapple is a good source of vitamin A and vitamin C and is fairly rich in vitamin B1 and B2. It contains enzyme bromelin and several odorous lactones have been found in Pineapple. The fruit contains moisture 85.0%, sugar 13%, protein0.6%, and mineral matter 0.05%.</p> <p> The presence of proteolytic enzymes like bromelain in pineapple juice was demonstrated in 1891 as stated in LotzWinter. The highest concentration of bromelain is found in ripe pineapple fruit pulp and in the stems. Bromelain is commonly used in food production, in pharmaceutical industries and in diagnostic laboratories. After juice extraction pineapple fruit also possess a valuable ament of waste. Several by products are also prepared by waste e.g. alcohol, calcium citrate, citric acid and vinegar. Preparation of manosidase oxalic acid and pineapple gum and flavours is also possible. The pineapple fruit is used for preparing candy. The leaves yield 2-3% of strenge white silky fibrous, 38-90 cm length, which is used for making a fine fabric called pina cloth.</p> <p>Pineapple production 2009 (FAOSTAAT)Country Philippines Thailand Costa Rica Indonesia Chile Brazil India Nigeria Area (ha) Production Productivity (MT) (MT/ha) 96081 50,000 67,000 64,615 85,800 1,17,500 39000 15,000 2198 000 1894000 1870000 1558000 1477000 1471000 1341000 898000 23.14 37.24, 29.49 25.26 15.24 7.65 31.41 42.33</p> <p>Major pineapple producing state in IndiaState Area (000ha) Production (000MT) 372.1 191.9 138.6 121.1 115.8 102.4 100.7 85.0 170.4 1308.0 12.4 2.7 4.5 6.2 12.5 12.0 9.6 12.5 85.8 Productivity (MT/ha) 27.76 15.47 51.33 26.91 18.67 8.19 8.39 0.88 13.63 15.24</p> <p>West Bengal 13.4 Assom Karnataka Bihar Tripura Kerala Manipur Meghalaya Others Total</p> <p>Constraints of Pineapple production Rainfed production system and erratic precipitation. Predominance of queen and Kew on farms. Lack of techniques among the growers. Peoples perception regarding pineapple cultivation. Poor organic matter &amp; low moisture containing soils. Free grazing of animals especially during dry period. Poor communication for marketing during glut. Processing industry problem.</p> <p>Smooth CayenneSmooth Cayenne pineapple originated before 1820 and was the type indigenous Venezuelans cultivated. The Spanish call it Cayena Lisa. Since then, this type became a leading pineapple in several countries. Modern cultivars that arose from breeding or selection of natural mutations of the Smooth Cayenne include Hilo, St. Michael, Giant Kew, Perolera, Charlotte Rothschild, Bumanguesa, Monet Lirio, Esmeralda, Typhone and Palin. These cultivars are grown throughout the world. Some are more widespread in various regions based on disease resistance, flavor or harvest scheduling.</p> <p>Red SpanishRed Spanish pineapple is commonly grown as a commercial cultivar in the West Indies, Mexico and Venezuela as well as in Florida. Breeders crossed Red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne pineapples to create modern cultivars that are grouped in the Red Spanish class. Cabezona, Valera, Valera Amarilla, Valera Roja, Castilla, Cumanesa, Morada and Monte Oscuro are names of cultivars in this class.</p> <p>QueenThe Queen or "common rough" pineapple is more compact in size and more tolerant of cold. Cultivars in the Queen class are still grown worldwide. Names of cultivars are Natal Queen, James Queen, Egyptian Queen, MacGregor, Alexandria, Kallara Local, Ripley and Calcutta.</p> <p>AbacaxiAbacaxi pineapples are often regarded as the most fragrant and delicious of all. They bruise easily and don't make good commercial plants for canning, but are ideal for fresh markets. Today, Abacaxi types are numerous in Brazil, the Bahamas and South Florida. Sugarloaf, Black Jamaica, Eleuthera, English, Brecheche, Sugar Slice, Caicara, Chocona, Congo Red, Santa Marta, Criolla and Panare are names of pineapple cultivars derived from the original Abacaxi pineapple slection.</p> <p>CULTIVARS A large number of varieties are grown in different parts of India. Cayenne group: Smooth Cayenne, Hilo, Kew Giant Kew and Charlotte Rothschild Queen group: Common queen, Mauritius, Ripley queen, Alexandra and Mac Gregor. Spanish group: Red Spanish, Singapore and Masmerah. Indigenous Group: Jaldhup, Lakhat, Baruipur Local and Haricharanvita</p> <p>Cultivars Kew Plants are vigorous; leaves have short sector of spines at the tip and margins; fruits weigh about 1.5- 2.5 kg; eyes are broad and shallow making it more suitable for canning;Dr. JAI PRAKASH, Scientist (Horticulture)</p> <p>Queen Most popular cultivar of Tripura. Plants- dwarf and compact; leaves- short, spiny along the margins; fruits weigh about 0.8 to 1.3 kg; peduncle-short, fruitlets or eyes are small, deep set; fruits although less juicier than the Cayenne group are less fibrous; TSS13 to 19 Brix and acidity 0.6 to 0.8%.</p> <p>Mauritius Fruits medium sized and are of 2 types- yellow and red. Yellow types- Oblong, fibrous and medium sweet. Red types- Oblong, less fibrous and sweeter than the yellow types. Leaves-yellowish green, spiny throughout the margin and the crown is also spiny in both types.</p> <p> It is a selection from a cross of Kew x Ripley Queen and developed from Kerala Agriculture University, Trichur. The leaves are short stiff, spiny along the margins, and thickly covered with a whitish bloom on both surfaces. Frits are similar to queen and suitable for table purpose. It ripes 10days late compare to queen. Fruit weight 0.8-1.1kg. Peduncle is short, fruit lets or eyes are small, prominent, deep set. The total soluble solids content varies from 16 to 180 brix and acidity between 0.5 and 0.6%.</p> <p>Amritha</p> <p>PQM-1 Fruits medium sized and suitable for table &amp; canning purpose, fruit weight 0.91.4kg and late maturity. Orange colour, Oblong, fibrous and medium sweet. Leaves-reddish green, spiny throughout the margin and the crown is also spiny, TSS 14-17.4brix</p> <p>MD-2 (PRI Hybrid 73-114) A unique hybrid develped from Pineapple Research Institute Hawai in the 1990-95. The PRI hybrid 73-114 is a sibling of hybrid 73-50 and the parents were PRI hybrids 58-1184x59-443. The hybrid composition is Smooth Cayenne17, Smooth Guatemala6, Pemambuco4, Ruby (Spanish Clone) and Queen 1. The marketing right belongs to Delmonte Gold group of companies.</p> <p>MD-2 is a hybrid that originated in the breeding programme of the nowdefunct Pineapple Research Institute in Hawaii, which conducted research on behalf of Del Monte, Maui Land &amp; Pineapple Company, and Dole.</p> <p>MD-2 fruits at ripening</p> <p>CO-2A new plant variety of the Bromeliaceae, or pineapple, family, Ananas comosus, has been developed as an interspecific cross between Pineapple Research Institute hybrid clone 58-1184 and Pineapple Research Institute (PRI) hybrid clone 59-443, and has been named hybrid CO-2. This hybrid clone generally resembles the parent varieties, but is distinguished therefrom in that this plant produces a sweeter, more viamin C rich fruit, which is low in parasitic fruit diseases, and tolerant or resistant to the physiological disorder called internal browning. This plant has more uniform yellow color, good fruit appearance after refrigerated storage, and produces acceptable crop yields of saleable fresh pineapple</p> <p>Propagation Pineapple is commercially propagated by suckers in India. However, it can also be propagated by slips and crowns but fruiting will be after two year of planting Stem pieces can be also used. Tissue culture: axillary and terminal buds from crown.</p> <p>Planting, HDP (across the slope and terrace)Plant Plant to plantRow Population/ within a row.Row ha. (cm) (cm) 43,500 53,300 63,700 22000 55000 30 25 22.5 45-60 60 60 60 60 toTrenchTrench (cm) 90 90 Yield (t/ha) 45.2 51.6 61.0 15-18</p> <p>60 or 45 75 or 90 90-120 75</p> <p>Triangular system of planting</p> <p>ManuringFYM 25 to 30 tonnes/ ha N 200 Kg/ ha P 100 Kg/ ha K 200 Kg/ ha Application of fertilizers in three split doses is recommended. 1st : Onset of monsoon (June-July). 2nd : End of monsoon (Sept-Oct). 3rd : Feb-March as per rainfall.</p> <p>Use of Different grades (weight) of Suckers cv. QueenWeight of sucker (g) Time of planting Flowering Time Fruit maturity Weight of Fruit (g) TSS (0brix) Fruit Yield</p> <p>(t/ha)</p> <p>900 600 300</p> <p>15-30 September 15-30 September 15-30 September</p> <p>March</p> <p>May-June650</p> <p>16.5 14.8 16.2</p> <p>31.36 41.25 39.45</p> <p>June-July October 1055 JulyAugust Decembe 1020 r-January</p> <p>Off season fruiting</p> <p>Main season fruiting</p> <p>Recommendation of AICRP on Tropical fruits induce flowering in cv KewSept- Jan NAA 20 ppm (Planofix 2ml/ 4.5 lts of water) + 2% Urea. MarchMay All months Ethrel 10 ppm + 2% Urea +0.04 % Sodium carbonate. Ethrel 25 ppm + 2% Urea + 0.004% Sodium carbonate.</p> <p>Why Ethrel for induction of flowerSeveral recommendations of chemicals are in India and abroad to induce the flower in pineapple plants with different combination and concentrations. It is accepted globally that each chemical i.e. Planofix, anaphthaleneacetic acid or B naphylacetic acid, Sodium carbonate, calcium carbide, B-hydroxyethyl hydrazine, Ethrel or Ethephon used to induce the flowering in and each of them produced ethylene in plant system Each chemical excluding stimulate ethylene production in plants which directly available in Ethrel and due to this its efficacy is much higher which prove it as best chemical to induce flower in pineapple and it is permitted by USDA also. As per WHO, calcium carbide is no longer permitted for application in fruit industry in any form due to its carcinogenic effect on human health.</p> <p>PAN Pesticides Database Chemicals Chemical Identification and Use for Ethephon Basic Identification Information About This Chemical Chemical Name:Ethephon U.S. EPA PC Code:099801 CA DPR Chem Code:1626 Molecular Structure: Use Type: Plant Growth Regulator Chem Class: Organophosphorus</p> <p>Stage of chemical application Ethrel can induce the flowering at any stage of the plant growth with different concentration but fruit size and quality will be reduced drastically if applied at early stage. However optimum size of plant should forced to induce flowering at right stage to get marketable size of fruits and without any adverse effect on ratoon crops. Hence, stage of plants are denoted by the active leaf number in plant of pineapple i.e. 30-32 leaves in Queen, 34-36 leaves in Kew, 32-34 leaves in PQM-1, 30-32 leaves in Mauritius under Tripura condition</p> <p>Time of application After concluding various experiments on time of chemical application and its efficacy to induce flower in pineapple, The evening application 3.00PM on wards enhance the efficacy of chemical poured in the heart of pineapple plant are sprayed uniformly in dense orchard. The plantation exists under Agro-forestry respond better even during 10.00AM to 3.00PM. due to partially opening of stomata of leaves otherwise it is closed during sunlight.</p> <p> Ethrel concentration should be prepared and poured in the heart of the plant (for small area and under low density). Where plant density is 43500 or higher the foliar application is better with foot sprayers or rock sprayers to cover a large area. The 30-40ml solution is sufficient to induce the flowering on physiologically mature plant of pineapple and it start flowering in 50-55 days after application in most of the month except December-January due to low temperature which, delay flowering by 7-10 days. The application of chemical should be avoided if there is rainfall before six hour of application and it should be repeated if rain was noticed within 10 hours after chemical application.</p> <p>Method of Application</p> <p>Inducing fruiting through chemicals</p> <p>Staggered planting and application of Ethrel as influenced the flowering and fruiting of pineappleWeight of Time of sucker (g) Planting 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g April May June July August October Time of application 15 30 Nov. 15 30 Dec. 15-30March 15-30April 15-30May 1-15 August Concentration 100ppm 100ppm 100ppm 150ppm 150ppm 200ppm 200ppm --------Flowering Time January February May June July 20-30Aug 20-30 Sept Feb- March</p> <p>September 1-15July</p> <p>Main Crop Sept.-Oct. -----</p> <p>Flowering and fruiting of pineapple contWeight of Fruit maturity sucker (g) 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g 300-450g Fruit weight TSS (g) (0brix) 17.5 17.8 14.5 15.0 15.2 15.0 16.2 15.2 Yield (t/ha) 34.56 36.16 43.52 36.52 35.55 33.57 32.39 31.99 20 March-15 April 950 20 April-5 May September October November Dec-Jan Jan-Feb 1020 1150 1050 985 850 750 740</p> <p>Main Crop May to June</p> <p>Dr. JAI PRAKASH, Scientist (Horticulture)</p> <p>Improvement of fruit quality Pinching: Removal of crown leaves 1.5-2.0 cm after 30</p> <p>days of fruit set. The maximum fruit weight (1.34 kg) was recorded under 30 days followed by (1.20 kg) in 40 days and minimum (890g) under control. Slips should be removed immediate after emergence; if number of slips will increase then fruit size and quality will decreases. Encourage the growth of suckers it have positive impact over fruit quality and size. Foliar feeding of N, Zn and Boron (1.5, 0.5 &amp; 0.1% respectively) after 20 days of fruit set.</p> <p>Over slipping</p> <p>Pinching and Non-pinching</p> <p>Sunburn/sun scaling</p> <p>Management of Sun burn by use of shade net</p> <p>100% fruits were free from sun burn</p> <p>Mutilple crown</p> <p> Black-rot or Soft-rot A delay of some days between harvest and utilization of the ripe fruits leads to the development of black-rot or soft-rot. The fungus makes its entry through wounds caused during picking and packing. Infestation starts at the stalk-end of the fruit, resulting in small, circular, water-soaked spots that are very soft. Gradually, fruit rots and emits foul. Mangement : Dipping of fruits for 5 minutes in Thiabendazole (100 ppm) or Benomyl (3000 ppm) minimise rotting. Avoiding injury to the fruit during harvest and transit prevents disease occurrence.</p> <p>Heart-rot (Phytophthora parasitica) The disease causes complete rotting of the central portion of the stem. The top leaves tu...</p>