phosphorus zinc interaction
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DESCRIPTIONMaize (Zea mays L.) and wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol] is the third and second most important cereal crop of India, respectively. Maize–wheat system is the third dominant cropping system of India covering 1.8 mha with 2.3% contribution in food grain production (Jat et al., 2013). Interactions between nutrients in plants occur when the supply of one nutrient affects the absorption, distribution and functions of another nutrient. Generally P and Zn interact negatively, which depends upon a number of physico-chemical properties of soil. Antagonistic P×Zn interaction has been subject of intensive research in several countries and has been thoroughly reviewed. Although some positive interactions of P and Zn are also reported (Shivay, 2013). The maximum available P and Zn content in the soil was recorded with super-optimal dose (150% NPK) and optimal dose (100% NPK) along with Zn, respectively (Verma et al., 2012). Zinc and P application has antagonistic effect on each other with respect to their concentration and absorption by wheat and maize (Verma and Minhas, 1987). The three Bacillus aryabhattai strains (MDSR7, MDSR11 and MDSR14) were consistent in enhancement of root and shoot dry weight and zinc uptake in wheat (Ramesh et al., 2014). Management of P×Zn interaction is a challenging task in the era of sustainable food and nutritional security. Use of efficient varieties and application of inorganic P and Zn fertilizer in conjunction with bio-inoculants can increase the crop yield and efficiency of added fertilizers to save precious input.
- 1. Phosphorus-zinc interaction and its management in maize-wheat cropping system Ramesh Kumar Singh 10260 Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi 110 012 1
2. Outline Introduction Maize-wheat system P and Zn status Significance of P and Zn in plant nutrition P x Zn interaction Management strategies Research findings Conclusion 2 3. Introduction Maizewheat: Third dominant cropping system of India covering 1.8 mha with 2.3% contribution in national foodgrain production (Jat et al., 2013) Maize and wheat is third and second most important cereal crop of India, respectively 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Area (mh) production (mt) Yield (q/ha) Maize (2011-12) DMR, 2012-13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Area (mh) production (mt) Yield (q/ha) Wheat (2012-13) http://www.indiastat.com/dacnet 3 4. Phosphorus in Indian soils Soil sample analysed- 3,650,004 (Motsara, 2002) 80% deficient soil sample (Tewatia, 2012) Category wise deficient sample (Motsara, 2002) Low- 42% Medium- 38% High- 20% Low- 98% of districts (Tiwari, 2001) Low-Maharashtra (86%), Haryana (81%), Punjab (29%) Medium- Punjab (49%), Karnataka (48%), Tamil Nadu (41%) High- Kerala (53%), West Bengal (39%),Tamil Nadu (35%) bnnnnnnnn nnbnbbnnb bbnbnnbbn nbnbnbnbn bnhjjhjhjhhg jhjjhjhhjjhjhj hjhjhjhjhjhjh nbnmmnhjj hjhhjjhjhhjjh jhhj Source: http://www.rainfedfarming.org/documents/ETD_2011_7_12_17%20india's%20soil%20crisis.pdf4 5. High & very high available P: most part of farm Low level available P: Todapur block Build up of P due to continuous application Use P solubilizer/mobilizer to exploit the reserve Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi Phosphorus in IARI farm 5 6. Zinc deficiency map of world soil 50% analysed soil sample deficient in Zn (Alloway, 2008) Wide spread deficiency: cereal production areas Average total Zn conc. cultivated soils is around 65 mg/kg (Alloway, 2009) Most deficient: Iraq, Turkey, China, Pakistan, India, Korea, Syria and Italy 6 Alloway (2008) Micronutrient Deficiencies in Global Crop Production 7. Soil samples analysed-251660 (Singh, 2001) 49% deficient soil sample 86% Maharashtra 72.8% Karnataka 20% Delhi 8% Puducherry According to Rattan (1999) in Indian soil total Zn is 55 mg/kg and available Zn is 0.54 mg/kg Gupta et al. (2007) Zinc in Indian soils 7 8. Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi Zinc in IARI farm Farm adequate in available Zn Marginal deficiency: WTC , some part of NBPGR and Todapur farm High reserve of Zn due to continuous application Use of Zn solubilizer to exploit the reserve 8 9. Role of phosphorus in plants Energy storage and transfer Photosynthesis Transformation of sugars and starches Increases water use efficiency- reduces water stress Helps in seed formation Promotes early root formation and growth Early crop maturity Transfer of genetic characteristics 9 10. Plants take up P as: HPO4 = (pH > 7.0)H2PO4 - (pH < 7.0) equal at pH 7.2 P deficiency in maize P deficiency in wheat 10 11. Causes of low availability of phosphorus Causes of low availability of P Nature and amount of soil minerals Soil pH Ionic effects Extent of P saturation Organic matter Temperature Agricultural management 11 12. Role of zinc in plants Diverse enzymatic activity Protein synthesis Structural and functional integrity of cell membranes Detoxification of reactive oxygen species(ROS) Carbohydrate metabolism Synthesis and protection of IAA Reduces heavy metal accumulation 12 13. Plants take up Zn as: Zn2+ Zn deficiency in maize Zn deficiency in wheat 13 14. Causes of low availability of zinc Causes of low availability of Zn Soil pH Soil with restricted root zones Low zinc content in soil Low organic matter Water logging/ flooding of soils Zinc interaction with other nutrients High P fertilization Cool soil temperature 14 15. Nutrient interaction Growth 15 16. P-Zn Antagonism Cellular level imbalance Increased -ve surface charge on soil High P induced less mycorrhizal root infection Slower translocation of Zn in plants P-Zn interaction in soil Dilution effect P-Zn interaction hypotheses This study first started by Barnette et al. (1936) in corn 16 17. Increased negative charge i. Increased ve surface charge on soil Due to high P fertilization (Shivay, 2013) Negatively charged phosphate ion attract by Al, Fe and Ca ions (Morris et al., 1977) 17 18. ii. P-Zn interaction in soil (Ghanem & Mikkelsen, 1988)