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  • SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES

    A PHILOLOGICAL APPROACH TO BUDDHISM

  • THE BUDDHIST FORUM, VOLUME V

  • A PHILOLOGICAL APPROACH TO BUDDHISM

    The Bukky Dend Kykai Lectures 1994

    K.R.Norman

    SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

    1997

  • Published by the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London), Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H OXG

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledges collection of

    thousands of eBooks please go to http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/.

    K.R.Norman 1997

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN 0-203-98571-0 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN - (Adobe e-reader Format) ISBN 0 7286 0276 8 (Print Edition) ISSN 0959-0596

  • Contents

    Foreword vii

    Abbreviations ix

    Bibliography xi

    I Buddhism and Philology 1

    II Buddhism and its Origins 18 III Buddhism and Oral Tradition 35 IV Buddhism and Regional Dialects 50 V Buddhism and Writing 65

    VI Buddhism and Sanskritisation 80 VII Buddhism and Aoka 96

    VIII Buddhism and Canonicity 111 IX Buddhism and the Commentarial Tradition 127 X Philology and Buddhism 143

    Word Index 158

  • Foreword

    The lectures contained in this book are slightly revised versions of those I gave as Bukky Dend Kykai Visiting Professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies from January to March 1994. My thanks are due to the Bukky Dend Kykai for instituting the Professorship and for the authorities of the School of Oriental and African Studies for appointing me to it.

    The lectures were intended for an audience which knew something about Buddhism but little or nothing about philology. The notes which I have added are intended for the general reader, rather than the specialist, to supply the sources for the information I give.

  • Abbreviations

    AMg Ardha-Mgadh AO Acta Orientalia

    B.C.E. Before Common Era BHS Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit

    BHSD Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary BHSG Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar

    BSO(A)S Bulletin of the School of Oriental (and African) Studies BSR Buddhist Studies Review BUp C.E. Common Era

    CP IV K.R.Norman, Collected Papers, Volumes IV (199094) CPD A Critical Pli Dictionary, Copenhagen CUP Cambridge University Press

    DEDR T.Burrow & M.B.Emeneau, Dravidian Etymological Dictionary (revised edition, 1984)

    DPPN G.P.Malalasekera, Dictionary of Pli Proper Names (193738)

    EV I, II K.R.Norman, Elders Verses I (1969), II (1971) GD I, II K.R.Norman, The Group of Discourses I (1984), II (1992) GDhp Gndhr Dharmapada

    IIJ Indo-Iranian Journal IT Indologica Taurinensia JA Journal Asiatique

    JBuRS Journal of the Burma Research Society JOI(B) Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda) JPTS Journal of the Pali Text Society JRAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society m.c. metri causa MIA Middle Indo-Aryan

  • MRI Minor Readings and Illustrator MW M.Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1899) OUP Oxford University Press PDhp Patna Dharmapada

    PE Pillar Edict PED The PTSs Pali-English Dictionary Pkt Prakrit PTS Pali Text Society RE Rock Edict

    SBE Sacred Books of the East Skt Sanskrit

    SOAS School of Oriental and African Studies (London) SWTF Georg von Simson (ed.), Sanskrit-Wrterbuch der

    buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden (1973) berbl O.von Hinber, Das ltere Mittelindisch im berblick

    (1986) WZKS Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde Sdasiens

    Abbreviations of the titles of Pli texts are those adopted by the CPD. Editions are those of the PTS, unless otherwise stated.

  • Bibliography

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    unpublished conference paper. Almond, P.C., 1988, The British discovery of Buddhism, Cambridge. Alsdorf, L., 1962, Uttarajjhy Studies, IIJ VI, 2, pp. 11036. , 1965, Les tudes jaina: tat prsent et tches futures, Paris. Balbir, N., 1993, Titres et Canons dans lHtrodoxie Indienne, in La formation des canons

    scripturaires, Paris CERF, pp. 4759. Beal, S., 1884, Buddhist records of the western world, London. Bechert, H., 1978, Buddhism in Ceylon and Studies on Religious Syncretism, Gttingen. , 1980, The language of the earliest Buddhist tradition, Gttingen. , 1985, Zur Schulzugehrigkeit von Werken der Hnayna-Literatur, Erster Teil, Gttingen. , 1987, Zur Schulzugehrigkeit von Werken der Hnayna-Literatur, Zweiter Teil, Gttingen. , 1991A, Methodological considerations concerning the language of the earliest Buddhist

    tradition, BSR 8, 12, pp. 319. , 1991B, The dating of the historical Buddha, Gottmgen. , 1992, The writing down of the in Pli, WZKS XXXVI, pp. 4553. Bendall, C., 1883, Catalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit manuscripts in the University Library,

    Cambridge, Cambridge (reprinted Stuttgart 1992). Bernhard, F., 1965, Udnavarga, Vol. I, Gttingen. Bhattacharya, K., 1989, Brahman in the Pali Canon and in the Pali Commentaries, in Amal

    Praj: Aspects of Buddhist Studies, Delhi, pp. 1531. Bloch, J., 1950, Les inscriptions dAsoka, Paris. Bloomfield, M., & Edgerton, F., 1932, Vedic Variants, Vol. II (Phonetics), Philadelphia. Bode, M., 1909, The Pali Literature of Burma, London. Bolle, W.B., 1974, Buddhists and Buddhism in the earlier literature of the vetmbara Jains, in

    Cousins et al., 1974, pp. 2739. Brough, J., 1953, The early brahmanical system of Gotra and Pravara, CUP. , 1954,The language of the Buddhist Sanskrit texts (Review of Edgerton, 1953A & 1953B),

    BSOAS, 16, 2, p. 35175. , 1962, The Gndhr Dharmapada, London. , 1964, The Chinese pseudo-translation of rya-ras Jtaka-ml, Asia Major NS 11.1, pp.

    2753. , 1980, Sakya Niruttiy: Cauld kale het, in Bechert, 1980, pp. 3542. Buddharakkhita, Acharya, 1985, The Dhammapada: the Buddhas path of wisdom, Kandy. Burford, Grace G., 1991, Desire, death, and goodness: the conflict of ultimate values in Theravda

    Buddhism, New York. Burghart, R., & Cantlie, A., 1985, (eds.): Indian Religion, London.

  • Burrow, T., 1973, The Proto-Indoaryans, JRAS, pp. 12340. Burrow T., and Emeneau, M.B., 1984, (second edition of) A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary

    (1961), Oxford. Caillat, C., 1989, Dialectes dans les littratures indo-aryennes, Paris. , 1991, Middle Indo-Aryan and Jaina Studies, Leiden. Carter, J.R., & Palihawadana, M., 1987, The Dhammapada, New York. Chakravarti, N.P., 1930, LUdnavarga sanskrit, Paris. Childers, R.C., 1875, Dictionary of the Pli language, London. Clough, B., 1824, A Compendious Pli Grammar with a Copious Vocabulary in the Same

    Language, Colombo. Collins, S., 1982, Selfless Persons, CUP. , 1990, On the very idea of the Pali canon, JPTS XV, pp. 89126. , 1992, Notes on some oral aspects of Pali literature, IIJ 35, 2/3, pp. 12135. Cone, M., 1989, Patna Dharmapada I, JPTS XIII, pp. 101217. Cousins, L.S., 1983, Pali oral literature, in Denwood and Piatigorsky, 1983, pp. 111. Cousins, L.S. et al. (eds), 1974, Buddhist Studies in Honour of I.B.Horner, Dordrecht. Cribb, J., 1985, Dating Indias earliest coins, in South Asian Archaeology 1983, Naples, pp. 535

    54. Cutler, S.Mellick, 1994, The Pli Apadna Collection, JPTS XX, pp. 142. Denwood, P., & Piatigorsky, A. (eds), 1983, Buddhist Studies: ancient and modern, London. Deraniyagala, S.U., 1990A, Radiocarbon dating of early Brahmi script in Sri Lanka, Ancient

    Ceylon 11, Colombo, pp. 14968. , 1990B, The proto- and early historic radiocarbon chronology of Sri Lanka, Ancient Ceylon

    12, Colombo, pp. 25192. Dhadphale, M.G., 1980, Synonymic collocations in the : a study, Poona. Duroiselle, C., 1911, Review of Bode 1909, in JBuRS I, 1, pp. 11921. Edgerton, F., 1953A, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar, New Haven. , 1953B, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, New Haven. Ehelolf, H., 1916, Ein Wortfolgeprinzip im Assyrisch-Babylonischen, Leipzig. Elizarenkova, T.Y., 1989, About traces of a Prakrit dialectal basis in the language of the

    , in Caillat, 1989, pp. 117. Erdosy, G., 1993, The archaeology of early Buddhism, in Studies on Buddhism in honour of

    Professor A.K.Warder, Toronto, pp. 4056. Geiger, W., 1994, A Pli Grammar, Oxford. Gethin, R., 1992A, The Mtiks: Memorization, Mindfulness, and the List, in The Mirror of

    Memory. Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, Albany, pp. 14972.

    , 1992B, The Buddhist Path to Awakening, Leiden. Gombrich, R.F., 1971, Precept and Practice, OUP. , 1980, The significance of former Buddhas in the Theravdin tradition, in Somaratna

    Balasooriya et al. (ed.), Buddhist Studies in honour of Walpola Rahula, London, pp. 6272. , 1988, How the Mahyna began, Journal of Pali and Buddhist Studies 1, pp. 2946. , 1990, Recovering the Buddhas message, in Skorupski, 1990, London, pp. 520. , 1992, The Buddhas book of Genesis, IIJ 35, pp. 15978. Goody, J. (ed.), 1968, Literacy in Traditional Societies, CUP. Grierson, Sir George A., 1926, (second edition of) Bihar Peasant Life (1885), Patna. Hallisey, C., 1990, , JPTS XV, pp. 15595. , 1993, Nibbnasutta: an allegedly non-canonical sutta on Nibbna as a great city, JPTS

    XVIII, pp. 97130.

  • Hara, M., 1969, A note on the folk-etymology of rjan, The Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute, XXV, pp. 48999.

    Hardy, E., 1902, The Netti- , London. Harvey, P., 1990,

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