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  • Alcohol & Harm

    Patterns & consequences of Alcohol Misuse in India

    - an epidemiological survey

    National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore

    Developed under: Government of India & World Health Organization Collaborative Program (Biennium 10-11)

  • Alcohol & Harm

    Principal Investigator: 1. Dr Vivek Benegal, Professor of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, NIMHANS,

    Bangalore

    Co-investigators: 2. Dr. G. Gururaj, Professor and Head, Dept of Epidemiology, NIMHANS 3. Dr. Pratima Murthy, Professor and Head, Centre for Addiction Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, NIMHANS,

    Bangalore 4. Dr N Girish, Associate Professor, Dept of Epidemiology, NIMHANS, Bangalore 5. Dr. Prabhat Chand, Associate Professor, Centre for Addiction Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, NIMHANS,

    Bangalore 6. Dr Deepak Jayarajan, Senior Resident, Centre for Addiction Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, NIMHANS,

    Bangalore 7. Mr. Lakshmanan S, Occupational Therapist, Centre for Addiction Medicine, Dept of Psychiatry, NIMHANS,

    Bangalore

    Field Site Investigators: 8. Dr. Sanjiba Dutta, Professor and Head, Department of Psychiatry, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical

    Sciences, Gangtok 9. Dr. Amit Chakrabarti, Professor of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of

    Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim 10. Dr. G Krishna Babu, Professor and Head of Social and Preventive Medicine, Andhra Medical College,

    Vishakapatnam 11. Dr. Ritambhara Mehta, Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Surat 12. Dr Kaushik Mishra; Associate Professor; Community Medicine, SCB Medical College, Cuttack 13. Dr Muralidhar Tambe, Professor and Head, Department of PSM, SBH Govt. Medical College, Dhule

    Co-ordinator - Focused Group Discussions: 14. Dr Amol R Dongre Professor of Community Medicine, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital,

    Pondicherry – 605107

    15. Dr.Paramita Sengupta, Professor of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Brown Road, Ludhiana 16. Dr Anmol Gupta, Associate Professor of Community Medicine, IGMC, Shimla 17. Dr Rajesh Singh, Christian hospital, Massorei road, Chamba Tehri Garhwal Uttarakhand, Garhwal Community

    Development & Welfare Society

    18. Dr Leonard Machado, Professor of Public Health, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, 19. Dr Vijayakumar, Professor and Head of Community Medicine, Trivandrum Medical College, Trivandrum

    20. Dr. BB Rai, Voluntary Health Association of India, Sikkim

    The views expressed in this report/publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect

    the decisions or stated policy of the World Health Organization; however they focus on issues that

    have been recognized by the Organization & Member states as being of priority

  • Alcohol & Harm

    Acknowledgements

    1) Dr Francois Decaillet, World Health Organisation

    2) Dr J S Thakur, World Health Organisation

    3) D r Kumar Rajan, World Health Organisation

    4) Dr Atreyi Ganguli, World Health Organisation

    5) Prof P Satish Chandra, Director- Vice Chancellor, National Institute of Mental Health and

    Neurosciences (NIMHANS) Bangalore

    6) Dr V Ravi, Registrar, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) Bangalore

    7) Heads of Participating Institutions

    8) Communities who participated in both quantitative and qualitative components of the study

    9) Vathsala J, Deepa M and Geetha Krishnan

    The study was funded by the Government of India & World Health Organization Collaborative Program (Biennium 10- 11) - APW Regn. No. 2011/1263070

  • Alcohol & Harm

    List of Acronyms IMFL – Indian Made Foreign Liquors (also increasingly referred to as IML – Indian Made Liquor) refers to western-style spirits such as whisky, rum, vodka, etc., manufactured in India. NCD- Non Communicable Disease FGD – Focused Group Discussion

  • Alcohol & Harm

    Contents

    Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................................................ iii

    List of Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................................. iv

    Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................................................. i

    Background ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

    Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

    Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................................ 2

    Results and Discussion ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

    Patterns of Alcohol Use ................................................................................................................................................... 8

    Types of alcoholic beverages consumed .......................................................................................................................... 8

    Prevalence of Alcohol Use............................................................................................................................................. 10

    Change in patterns of alcohol use .................................................................................................................................. 10

    Adverse consequences to the drinker ............................................................................................................................. 12

    Hazardous Drinking - AUDIT Scores ........................................................................................................................... 13

    Alcohol Use & Health Problems .................................................................................................................................... 13

    Physical problems ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

    Psychological problems ............................................................................................................................................ 14

    Age at death .............................................................................................................................................................. 15

    Treatment seeking ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

    Health Seeking and Health Costs .............................................................................................................................. 16

    Alcohol Use & Socio economic issues .......................................................................................................................... 17

    Harms To Others ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

    Associated Risk Factors ................................................................................................................................................. 21

    Illicit alcoholic beverages and problems ................................................................................................................... 21

    Treatment seeking among consumers of licit and illicit beverages ................................................................................ 22

    Age of onset of use and its consequences ................................................................................................................. 22

    Gender and alcohol use ............................................................................................................................................. 23

    Discussion ..................................................................................................................................................................... 23

    Limitations ..................................................................................................................................................................... 26

    Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................................ 26

    References ....................................................................................................................

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