open badges policy 101

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Open Badges Policy 101 Webinar [4 Dec 2014] Webinar recording:


  • 1. Policy 101: Policy Context for Badges December 4, 2014 Danica Petroshius, Principal Kara Marchione, Vice President Rich Stombres, Vice President Penn Hill Group

2. 2 Federal Education Policy Affects Badges Federal policies can affect the development and scaling of badge systems, both positively and negatively Related activity occurs across the federal government: Congress: U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate White House U.S. Department of Education (ED) U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Several current policy categories affect badges within the K-12 and Higher Education spaces: Competency-based education Personalized learning Learning/career pathways Workforce-/industry-based credentialing Equity of access to tech infrastructure Internet safety and privacy policy 3. Education is primarily a state and local responsibility. Federal funding accounts for about 10 percent of national education expenditures. Federal influence over K-12 education is substantial, despite funding levels. Most federal education programs focus on providing opportunities for specific student populations and strategies/reforms. 3 Overview of Federal Role in K-12 Education President Jimmy Carter standing to the left of Shirley Hufstedler, the first U.S. Secretary of Education from 1979 to 1981. 4. Higher Education The federal government has an enormous influence on access to higher education due to the billions in Pell Grants and federal student loans it provides for students. However, it has less influence over institutions quality of education services and accountability. 4 Overview of Federal Role in Higher and Early Education Early Education The federal government supports a patchwork system mostly focused on access for the poorest kids. 5. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), currently the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, was first passed in 1965 as a part of President Johnsons War on Poverty. o Title I is the aid program for disadvantaged students The Higher Education Act (HEA) began in 1965 under President Johnsons Great Society agenda and was most recently reauthorized as the Higher Education Opportunity Act in 2008. o Includes Pell Grants and federal student loan programs 5 Core U.S. Dept. of Education Bills 6. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) addresses education needs of children and students with disabilities from ages 3 to 18 or 21. o Includes early intervention and special education The Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education (CTE) Act began in 1984 to increase the quality of technical education in the U.S. o The 2006 reauthorization increases focus on strengthening K-12 and postsecondary connections and improving state and local accountability 6 Core U.S. Dept. of Education Bills 7. 7 Core U.S. Dept. of Education Bills The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) began in 1974 and affords parents the rights to access their childrens education records, to have the records amended, and to consent to the disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) In February 2014, the Department released a guidance to clarify FERPA requirements and best practices related to use of software, mobile apps, and web-based tools In July 2014, the Department released a guidance for districts and other educational organizations on how to keep parents better informed about data collected on students In October 2014, major education technology service providers released a pledge to convey industry commitments to safeguarding student privacy 8. 8 How U.S. ED Bills Relate to Badges Competency-Based Education Competency-based education is when time is variable rather than fixed and students progress through their learning paths as they demonstrate proficiency or mastery of skills Badge-like systems are needed for competency-based education because they are a tool for capturing and conveying student competencies Recent ESEA and HEA bills introduced have contained language for enabling competency-based education programs Competency-based policy activity has been targeted more toward higher education than K-12, but postsecondary policies can drive action in the K-12 space as well badges = digital representations of a skill or achievement 9. 9 How U.S. ED Bills Relate to Badges Student Data and Privacy Student data is central to badges and badge systems data needs to be collected, analyzed, and shared across learning networks in a manner that does not limit students opportunities to learn and convey what they have learned Privacy policies that govern the use of student data and student access to digital tools strongly influence the structure and scale of badge systems There is increasing federal activity around student data privacy policies, which may result in changes to privacy laws with unforeseen consequences that could be negative for badges Advocates from the badge community are important voices to add to privacy policy conversations because the outcomes will shape the digital learning environment for years to come 10. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) is the 2014 reauthorization of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA). o Funds job training and adult education programs o Job Corps offers free education and employment training for youths ages 16-24 10 Core U.S. Dept. of Labor Bills 11. 11 How Core U.S. DOL Bills Relate to Badges Career Pathways and Workforce-Credentials Badges can help learners create and navigate pathways that are driven by their interests and connected to college- and career-related goals Unlike more traditional forms of credentialing, badges offer industries a mechanism to issue credentials truly aligned with the skills they seek For example, the Manufacturing Institute uses badges to define skills important to the industry WIOA aims to improve the national workforce preparation and employment system so it is designed to meet both the needs of businesses and the needs of job seekers The fact that WIOA language highlights credential portability and the ability to stack credentials means badges could be a perfect fit. It will be necessary to follow the Departments regulations of WOIA to see if there are opportunities for comment to build in badges. 12. 12 Core Federal Communications Commission Bill From the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the FCC oversees the Schools and Libraries Program known as E-Rate, which provides financial support for schools and libraries to adopt broadband and other digital infrastructure services In August 2014, the FCC released an E-Rate Modernization Order to expand access to funding for wi-fi networks and transition away from non-broadband technologies In November 2014, the FCC announced intent to raise the funding cap for E-Rate by $1.5 billion (from $2.4 billion to $3.9 billion) 13. The Childrens Online Privacy and Protection Act (COPPA) is a federal law passed in 2000 that governs the participation of young children in online activities. It requires a website provider to obtain verifiable consent from a parent or guardian for the participation of any child under age 13. It mandates what must be included in the websites privacy policy for young people and describes the responsibilities the operator has to protect childrens privacy and safety online, including restrictions on marketing. 13 Core Federal Trade Commission Bill 14. When Congress passes a bill and the President signs it into law, it is usually only authorized temporarily. Reauthorization is when Congress passes the bill again with changes, such as adding or deleting programs or provisions under the bill. In recent Congresses, a few education bills have been fully reauthorized, but others remain funded through continuing resolutions or budget deals. 14 What is Reauthorization? 15. 15 Reauthorization Delays Statute Reauthorization Due Elementary and Secondary Act (ESEA) 2007 Education Sciences Reform Act/Educational Technical Assistance Act 2008 (Likely to be reauthorized in 2014) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part Bpermanently authorized Parts C and D2010 Perkins Career and Technical Education Act 2012 Head Start Act 2012 Higher Education Act 2014 (Title II expired in 2011) 16. 16 Federal Budget Process Each year, Congress is supposed to pass 12 appropriations or spending bills, including the Labor- Health and Human Services- Education bill, for the next fiscal year. FY15 is October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. President Obama released his FY15 budget request last March (one month late). While appropriations committees and both the House and Senate passed various spending bills over the spring and summer, they were unable to complete the budget process. Neither committees passed the Labor-HHS- ED bill. 17. 17 Federal Budget Process Before October 1, Congress passed a short-term continuing resolution (CR) to fund the government until December 11, 2014. Without the CR, there would have been a government shutdown like the one last fall. Continuing resolutions have pros and cons. With CRs, programs do not change. However, programs usually do not lose (nor gain more) funding. Congress has to take legislative action by December 11 to fund the government or face another shutdown. 18. The 114th House Source: National Journal Research; CNN Election Center; New York Times. Analysis Republicans won a total of at least 244 seats in the House, their largest majority since 1928 An expanded GOP majority in the House means that Speaker Boehner will have an easier time passing legislation in the House without Democratic support, and Republicans will also have an easier time holding on to their majority in future elections Control of the 113th House (2012-2014) Democratic Republican Vacant Undecided* Control of the 114th House (2014-2016) AK Total Seats Democrats: 188 Repub