Normal Grief Reactions. Grief an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss Grief is a normal reaction to loss. The absence of grief is abnormal in most.

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Normal Grief Reactions Slide 2 Grief an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss Grief is a normal reaction to loss. The absence of grief is abnormal in most cases. Grief is based on the individual perceptions of the loss by the griever. Slide 3 Mourning an adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss or death or someone loved Mourning is the process of adjustment and adaptation to the loss. Mourning is driven by the social and cultural influences to which the griever is exposed. Slide 4 Characteristics of Grief Lindemann: Somatic (bodily distress) Somatic (bodily distress) Preoccupation with the image of the deceased. Preoccupation with the image of the deceased. Guilt Guilt Hostile reactions. Hostile reactions. Loss of patterns of conduct (inability to function as before the loss) Loss of patterns of conduct (inability to function as before the loss) Slide 5 Determinants of Grief How the bereaved perceives the loss. The bereaveds age. The age of the person who died. The degree to which the bereaved was prepared for the death. The bereaveds inner strength and outer resources. The nature of the relationship with the person who died. Slide 6 Wordens Grief Characteristics Feelings Physical sensations CognitionsBehaviors Slide 7 Wordens Tasks of Mourning Accept the reality of the loss. Experience the pain of grief. Adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing. Withdraw emotional energy and reinvest in another relationship. Slide 8 Psychological Factors Influencing Grief Raphael: The preexisting relationship between the bereaved and the deceased. The preexisting relationship between the bereaved and the deceased. The type of death. The type of death. Previous losses. Previous losses. Slide 9 Randos Psychological Factors Meaning of the loss. Qualities of the relationship. Roles of the deceased. Age of the griever. Grievers sex-role conditioning. Deceaseds unique characteristics Grievers mental state Grievers maturity and intelligence. Previous experience with loss. Slide 10 Randos Psychological Factors (contd) Cultural elements affecting the griever. Fulfillment of the deceaseds life. Context of the death. Preventability of the death. Timeliness of the death. Expectation of death. Length of illness. Involvement with dying person. Secondary losses. Additional stressors. Slide 11 Randos Sociological Factors Available support systems. Cultural background and context. Socioeconomic status. Funerary rituals. Slide 12 Physiological Factors Drugs and sedatives. Nutrition. Rest and sleep. Exercise Overall physical condition. Slide 13 Theories of Grief Freud: psychoanalytic Lindemann: physical Bowlby: relational Parkes: clinical Slide 14 Freud grief is a process by which libido (energy) is withdrawn from a love object The grief process absorbs the energies of the ego. Grief is normal, appropriate and necessary. Grief is painful. Slide 15 Lindemann Grief Syndrome Physical expressions of grief: Somatic or bodily distress. Somatic or bodily distress. Preoccupation with the image of the deceased. Preoccupation with the image of the deceased. Guilt. Guilt. Hostile reactions. Hostile reactions. Inability to function as one had before the loss. Inability to function as one had before the loss. Slide 16 Bowlby Attachment Theory: 4 aspects Strength of attachment. Strength of attachment. Security of attachment. Security of attachment. Reliance. Reliance. Involvement. Involvement. Slide 17 Parkes Clinical viewpoint Describes the experience of grief as a normal reaction to overwhelming loss. Describes somatic distress as pangs. Resistance to change and a reluctance to give up possessions, people, status and expectations are the basis of grief. Slide 18 Complicated Grief (Unresolved, Chronic) Slide 19 Canines Variable That Can Obstruct the Grief Process Past Losses (Worden: Historical Factors) Death Surround (Worden: circumstantial Factors and Relational Factors) Social Issues: (Worden: Social Factors And Personality Factors) (Lazare: 3 conditions) Abnormal Grief Responses (Worden: Abnormal Grief Reactions) Slide 20 Wordens Abnormal Grief Reactions Chronic Grief Reaction Exaggerated Grief Response Delayed Grief Response Masked Grief Response Slide 21 Therapeutic Strategies Reaching out to the bereaved. Rituals of bereavement. (Funeral Rites) Resolving complicated grief. Expectations for closure. 4 behaviors: acceptance of feelings 4 behaviors: acceptance of feelings detachment from the deceased detachment from the deceased reestablishment of relationships reestablishment of relationships restoration of wholeness restoration of wholeness

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