non renewable sources of energy fossil fuels –coal –oil –natural gas
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Non Renewable Sources of EnergyFossil FuelsCoalOilNatural Gas
CoalCoal - 23% of the energy used in U.S. Major uses of coal:To fuel electrical plantsCool Coal FactsAdvantages Most plentiful fossil fuel in the U.S. Provides a lot of energy when burnedDisadvantagesMining increases erosionRunoff causes water pollutionBurning coal causes a lot of air pollution
OilOutrageous Oil FactsOil- thick, black liquid fossil fuel.Also call petroleumAccounts for 1/3 of energy produced in the world.DisadvantagesLocated deep undergroundMust refine it- crude oil is separated into different fuels by heating it upAdvantagesMany different organic compounds (alkanes) derived from oil.Ex. Propane, butane, octane, etc.All plastics com from some petrochemicalsPE, PET, PP, PS
Natural GasA mixture of methane and other gasesNeat Natural Gas FactsIt is less dense than oil.Can be transported using pipelines.AdvantagesProduces large amounts of energy with less pollutionEasy to transportCan be compressed into a liquidDisadvantagesHighly flammableOdorless- a smell has to be added for detectionMercaptan- the chemical you are smelling when you smell gas.
Renewable Sources of EnergySolar EnergyWind EnergyHydroelectric EnergyTidal EnergyBiomass FuelsGeothermal EnergyHydrogen Power
RADIOACTIVITYThe result of changes in the nuclei of atoms
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSALPHA PARTICLE- helium nucleus with two protons and two neutron
Two units of positive charge which are dangerous if emitting substance is taken into the body
Heaviest particle emitted by an atom
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSBETA PARTICLE- electron shot out from an atoms nucleus which contains no electrons
Believed to be formed by the change of a neutron into a proton and a beta particle
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSGAMMA RAYS- energy waves similar to x-raysThey are not charged particlesConsist of photons (bundles of energy)Takes 6 of lead to stop them or several feet of concreteMost harmful radiation
IMPORTANT NUCLEAR SCIENTISTSERNEST RUTHERFORDDiscovered that radioactivity proved the transformation of an atom into energy (Transmutation)
JAMES CHADWICKDiscovered the neutron to be used as an atomic bullet to split the atom (Fission)
IMPORTANT NUCLEAR SCIENTISTSALBERT EINSTEINDiscovered that matter and energy were different forms of the same thing.
HAHN & STRASSMANFirst to split the atomUranium Krypton + Barium
IMPORTANT NUCLEAR SCIENTISTSENRICO FERMIDeveloped method of harnessing power of the atom.Chain reactionA controlled nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor in which fission releases enough neutrons to make the reaction continue until all of fissionable material is used up
NUCLEAR CHANGE TRANSMUTATION- nuclei of radioactive material decays at a fixed rateone element changes to a different onechange in # of protonsEx. Uranium 238 Lead 206
NUCLEAR CHANGEFISSIONDivide or split nucleus into two or more partsMass converted to energy (E = mc2)First nuclear fission bomb- July 16, 1945Shock wave felt for 1.2 milesEquivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT30000 C measured 2 miles away
NUCLEAR CHANGEFUSION-Nuclei of light atoms fused in extreme temperatures to form elements of great atomic weight (E = mc2)Referred to as thermonuclear reactions Hydrogen to Helium in the sun20 million degrees CelsiusLight and Heat travel 93 million miles
First Nuclear BombNamed TRINITYDetonated in New Mexico DesertLos Alamos LaboratoryDust Cloud 40,000 feet high
HiroshimaAugust 6, 1945Nicknamed Little Boy4 square miles destroyed (70%)66,000 deaths69,000 injured
NagasakiAugust 9, 1945Nicknamed Fatman40% of city39,000 deaths25,000 injured
How Nuclear Power is createdNuclear Fission reaction (Uranium)Creates tremendous heatHeats water to steamTurns steam turbineTurns copper coils in magnetic field to produce electricity
Advantages to Nuclear PowerLess air pollutionMore energy from less fuel
Disadvantages of Nuclear PowerCreates a safety issueNuclear wasteNuclear weapons
Nuclear Power in PennsylvaniaFive different areas supply 30 percent of PAs power.Closest to here is Shippingport.Shippingport has both a coal powered plant and a nuclear power plant.Nuclear power has 2 separate units.
Nuclear Power in PennsylvaniaThree mile islandNear meltdown in 1979No new nuclear plants opened since thenUnit 2 is permanently shut down
SOLAR ENERGY- energy from the Sun (Heat and Light)AdvantagesDoes not cause pollutionWill not run out for billions of yearsDisadvantagesOnly available when sun is shining
Solar Energy (cont)Solar technologiesSolar plantsSolar cellsSolar Heating SystemsPassive- converts sunlight to thermal energy without using pumps and fansActive- captures suns energy then uses fans or pumps to distribute heat.
WIND ENERGY- differences in air pressure causes windsWind farms consist of many windmills, and generate large amounts of power.AdvantagesWind energy is freeDoes not cause pollutionFew places have winds that blow steady enough
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY- electricity produced by flowing waterThe most widely used source of renewable energy in the world today.AdvantagesOnce plant is built, producing electricity is cheapDoes not create air pollutionProduces steady supply of energyDisadvantagesMost suitable rivers have already been dammedDams have negative effect on environment
TIDAL ENERGY- energy that comes from moving water caused by the tidesAdvantagesTides are constantDisadvantagesOnly a few coastal areas in the world are suitableBlocks boats and fish from travel up a river
BIOMASS FUELSa group of fuels made from living thingsExamples- wood, leaves, food wastes (corn stalks, manure)Biomass materials can be converted into other fuelsCorn and sugar can be used to make alcohol.Added to gasoline it is called gasohol(Alternative fuel for cars)
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY using magma close to the earths surface to heat water and generate electricity.AdvantageUnlimited source of cheap energyDisadvantageOnly a few places available to make it cost effective
HYDROGEN POWER- energy that comes from generating hydrogen gasAdvantagesBurns cleanlyForms H2O as by productNo smoke, smog, or acid formed.Exists in large supplyDisadvantageMost hydrogen is combined with oxygen in form of water. It takes too much energy to separate it.