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  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    4th CASEE Conference "Food and Biomass Production - Basis for a Sustainable Rural Development"

    Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass

    Production

    Aleksandra JURISIC – Milan MESIC - Ivana SESTAK - Zeljka ZGORELEC

    Department of General Agronomy

    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture

    Zagreb, 01.07.2013.

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    INTRODUCTION

    The Nitrogen Cycle (McLaren and Cameron, 1996)

    Galloway et al. (1995) named nitrogen as ''hopscotch" (children's game)  nitrogen moves through the air and water, across political and geographical boundaries around the globe Reason:

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    Global nitrogen budget for (a) 1890, and (b) 1990, Tg N yr–1

    After Galloway and Cowling, 2002.

    INTRODUCTION

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    The annual consumption of mineral fertilizers

    INTRODUCTION

    107 144 180

    358 383

    514 554

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600

    Sw ed

    en

    Fin lan

    d

    Cr oa

    tia

    Un ite

    d K ing

    do m

    Be lgi

    um

    Ire lan

    d

    Ne th

    erl an

    ds

    k g

    h a-

    1 ye

    ar -1

    Source: FAOSTAT, 2010

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    Air  Agricultural practices in Croatia contributed to direct release of N2O in the range of 3.2 Gg to

    4.5 Gg (Mesic et al., 2006)  Agriculture as a sector affects the emission of NH4 with 90% (Statistical Yearbook, 2010)

    Water • Groundwater pollution by nitrates from agriculture (Nemčić-Jurec, 2010) • Drainage water pollution by nitrates from agriculture (Simunic et al., 2002; Bensa et al., 2008; Zovko et al., 2008; Mesic et al., 2012) • 1.9 mg NO3--N L-1 up to 319.0 mg NO3--N L-1

    • Drinking water standards - maximum NO3--N concentration - 10 mg L-1 (WHO, 1998) • EU Nitrate Directive 91/676/ EEC

    Influence of fertilization on environment

    INTRODUCTION

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    1. Determine load of NO3--N in soil and NO3--N concentrations in lysimeters water regarding the different nitrogen fertilization levels

    2. Quantify the effect of nitrogen application rates on NO3--N losses

    via lysimeter outflow

    GOAL

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    MATERIALS AND METHODS • Central part of Croatia • Western Pannonian subregion of Croatia (45°33´N, 16°31´E) • Soil type: drained Stagnosols • Annual temperature T=10,7 °C • Precipitation = 865 mm 1965.-1990.

    -5 0 5

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

    I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII

    °C

    -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

    mm

    Temperatura Oborine Temperature Precipitation

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    MATERIALS AND METHODS Methodology of experiment

    Stagnosols • 4 ha • quantities of phosphorus and potassium are constantan on all treatments: 120 kg P ha-1 180 kg K ha-1

    • 4 replications This investigation includes four treatments: 1. N0PK 2. N100PK 3. N200PK 4. N300PK (kg N ha-1)

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    Lysimeter Drainage pipes

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    MATERIALS AND METHODS Soil sampling

    Depth: 0-25 cm 4 replications June November February June

    No vegetation

    Maize – 2007. Winter wheat – 2008.

    Water sampling Water sampling

    0 20 40 60 80

    100 120 140 160

    Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

    2007 2008

    P re

    ci p

    it a

    ti o

    n ,

    m m 2007-2008 Average 1965-1990

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    Laboratory measurements

    • Extraction (1:10 (w/v) in ultra pure water) • Centrifuge (5 min at 12000 rpm) and filtration • N-NO3- determination by ion-chromatography method

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    •Differences in soil nitrate-nitrogen content according to fertilization treatments for each sampling time and across sampling dates for each treatment were computed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) (SAS 9.1, SAS Institute Inc., USA). • The significance test was performed at probability level of p < 0.05. • Fisher’s least significant difference procedure

    Statistical analysis

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    RESULTS - SOIL

    c c b c

    b

    bc b c

    b

    bb b

    a

    a a

    a

    0 50

    100 150 200 250 300 350

    Jun 2007 Nov 2007 Feb 2008 Jun 2008

    LSD=69.14 LSD=40.64 LSD=9.11 LSD=36.41

    k g

    N O

    3 - -

    N h

    a1

    N 0 N 100 N 200 N 300

    Similar findings were reported in research all over the world: Asia (Guo et al., 2001) Africa (Ikerra et al., 1999) America (Nance and Karlen, 2007) Europe (Kristensen and Thorup Kristensen, 2007; Németh and Kádár, 1999)

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    a

    a a

    ab

    b b

    ba cb b

    b

    a

    b bc

    0 50

    100 150 200 250 300 350

    N 0 N 100 N 200 N 300

    LSD=14.64 LSD=39.14 LSD=20.73 LSD=72.26

    k g

    N O

    3- -N

    h a1

    Jun 2007 Nov 2007 Feb 2008 Jun 2008

    RESULTS - SOIL

    • Nitrification attains its optimum at 26 °C (Beck, 1983) • Excessive soil moisture inhibits the nitrification process (Sabay, 1969) • June 2007 - mean monthly temperature was 22.5 °C - monthly precipitations were 28.2 mm

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    RESULTS - WATER

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

    07 Oct 31 Oct 22 Nov 02 Dec 08 Dec 10 Jan 23 Mar 08 Jun

    2007 2008

    m g

    N O

    3- -N

    L -1

    N 0 N 100 N 200 N 300 WHO, 1998

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    RESULTS - NO3--N losses

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    07 Oct 31 Oct 22 Nov 02 Dec 08 Dec 10 Jan 23 Mar 08 Jun

    2007 2008

    k g

    N O

    3- -N

    h a-

    1

    N 0 N 100 N 200 N 300

    0 20 40 60 80

    100 120 140 160

    Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

    2007 2008

    Pr ec

    ip it

    at io

    n, m

    m 2007-2008 Average 1965-1990

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagreb, 01.07.2013. Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Soil and Lysimeter Water under Different Nitrogen Fertilization Levels in Biomass Production

    CONCLUSIONS

    • Soil NO3--N content significantly varied from 27.3 kg ha-1 to 338.2 kg ha-1 depending on the treatment and sampling time • High rates of N fertilizer in the production of maize and winter wheat have resulted in excessive nitrate N (NO3-N) leaching, with concentrations in lysimeter water frequently exceeding the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/L.

    •NO3--N losses through lysimeter outflow (0.12 kg ha-1 – 24.8 kg ha-1) were influenced by climate conditions, crops grown and their development stages and quantity and time of fertilizers applications.

  • 4th CASEE Conference Zagre

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